Table 1.

Characteristics of the breast cancer population based on data from 67 population-based and hospital-based studies.

CharacteristicsOverallER+ERLuminal A–likeLuminal B HER2-negative–likeLuminal B HER2–likeHER2-enriched–likeTriple negative
Number of womena, n121,43581,88522,25733,6338,9157,9764,0258,856
Number of overall deaths, n16,8909,9414,5873,0391,4901,1278491,858
Number of breast cancer–specific deaths, n8,5544,6542,5111,256792613458978
Clinical risk factors
Age at diagnosis, y, median (IQR)57 (48–65)58 (49–66)53 (44–62)59 (50–67)56 (46–65)54 (45–64)54 (46–62)53 (44–63)
Missing, n56
Year of diagnosis, n (%)
 1961–1975264 (0.2)98 (0.1)105 (0.5)24 (0.1)3 (0.0)16 (0.2)19 (0.5)59 (0.7)
 1976–19904,271 (3.6)1,707 (2.2)931 (4.3)725 (2.2)273 (3.1)144 (1.8)188 (4.7)433 (5)
 1991–200568,872 (58.8)44,075 (55.6)13,425 (61.4)13,776 (41.8)3,559 (40.7)3,694 (47.4)2,029 (51.1)4,351 (49.8)
 2006–201943,725 (37.3)33,414 (42.1)7,406 (33.9)18,465 (56.0)4,905 (56.1)3,943 (50.6)1,734 (43.7)3,898 (44.6)
 Missing, n4,303
Ethnicity, n (%)
 European91,981 (84)62,984 (84.7)15,479 (75.4)26,087 (85.8)6,534 (82.5)5,773 (77.2)2,617 (68.3)6,078 (76.7)
 Hispanic American866 (0.8)554 (0.7)179 (0.9)225 (0.7)46 (0.6)78 (1.0)26 (0.7)104 (1.3)
 African1,015 (0.9)461 (0.6)435 (2.1)135 (0.4)52 (0.7)58 (0.8)52 (1.4)261 (3.3)
 Asian13,139 (12.0)8,397 (11.3)3,991 (19.5)3,033 (10.0)1,090 (13.8)1,416 (18.9)1,061 (27.7)1,263 (15.9)
 Other2,516 (2.3)1,929 (2.6)433 (2.1)936 (3.1)198 (2.5)157 (2.1)77 (2.0)217 (2.7)
 Missing, n11,918
Tumor size, n (%)
 ≤2 cm49,887 (61.5)36,848 (63.2)7,746 (50.3)17,873 (65.5)3,339 (46.0)3,055 (52.2)1,305 (44.6)3,147 (48.2)
 >2 and ≤5 cm27,665 (34.1)19,024 (32.7)6,706 (43.5)8,358 (30.6)3,449 (47.5)2,478 (42.4)1,374 (47.0)3,016 (46.2)
 >5 cm3,603 (4.4)2,388 (4.1)948 (6.2)1,067 (3.9)472 (6.5)317 (5.4)245 (8.4)371 (5.7)
 Missing, n40,280
Nodal status, n (%)
 Negative59,569 (62.1)43,212 (62.0)11,156 (59.6)20,203 (63.5)4,352 (51.4)3,930 (54.6)1,795 (50.5)4,874 (62.7)
 Positive36,395 (37.9)26,476 (38.0)7,551 (40.4)11,609 (36.5)4,112 (48.6)3,264 (45.4)1,759 (49.5)2,905 (37.3)
 Missing, n25,471
Tumor stage, n (%)
 I34,157 (44.5)25,351 (45.9)5,147 (34.6)12,222 (47.7)1,903 (29.4)2,209 (37.5)839 (28.0)2,143 (34.6)
 II34,696 (45.2)24,498 (44.3)7,663 (51.5)11,154 (43.5)3,567 (55.2)2,838 (48.1)1,561 (52.1)3,314 (53.5)
 III7,990 (10.4)5,411 (9.8)2,056 (13.8)2,243 (8.8)997 (15.4)850 (14.4)597 (19.9)742 (12)
 Missing, n44,592
Grade, n (%)
 Grade 117,919 (19.2)15,546 (22.6)800 (4.5)10,130 (30.1)672 (9.3)62 (1.8)279 (3.7)
 Grade 245,065 (48.3)37,347 (54.3)4,614 (26.1)23,503 (69.9)3,397 (47.0)918 (26.4)1,709 (22.4)
 Grade 330,231 (32.4)15,852 (23.1)12,253 (69.4)8,915 (100)3,151 (43.6)2,498 (71.8)5,651 (74)
 Missing, n28,220
Surgery, n (%)
 No surgery1,160 (1.6)437 (0.8)152 (1.1)108 (0.4)26 (0.4)37 (0.7)22 (0.8)35 (0.6)
 Breast conserving surgery29,530 (40.9)22,923 (44.4)4,971 (36.8)11,551 (47.5)2,371 (36.7)2,188 (40.3)775 (28.9)2,168 (38.8)
 Mastectomy22,785 (31.6)16,032 (31.1)5,237 (38.7)6,730 (27.7)2,156 (33.4)2,092 (38.5)1,378 (51.3)1,821 (32.6)
 Type unknown18,677 (25.9)12,187 (23.6)3,155 (23.3)5,942 (24.4)1,907 (29.5)1,111 (20.5)510 (19.0)1,561 (27.9)
 Missing, n49,283
Radiotherapy, n (%)
 No18,563 (27.6)12,525 (26.3)3,684 (28.8)5,268 (25.7)1,250 (22.8)1,353 (26.1)801 (30.8)1,217 (25.7)
 Yes48,616 (72.4)35,037 (73.7)9,111 (71.2)15,241 (74.3)4,243 (77.2)3,826 (73.9)1,797 (69.2)3,510 (74.3)
 Missing, n54,256
Chemotherapy, n (%)
 No27,667 (41.0)21,895 (45.9)2,310 (16.5)11,812 (53.0)1,632 (25.3)1,203 (21.9)328 (11.3)864 (15.2)
 Yes39,815 (59.0)25,796 (54.1)11,729 (83.5)10,465 (47.0)4,820 (74.7)4,294 (78.1)2,584 (88.7)4,816 (84.8)
 Missing, n53,953
Endocrine therapy, n (%)
 No19,688 (28.6)7,869 (15.6)9,232 (77.4)3,629 (15.5)781 (13.1)978 (17.2)2,209 (88.0)3,907 (84.5)
 Yes49,163 (71.4)42,682 (84.4)2,689 (22.6)19,859 (84.5)5,175 (86.9)4,702 (82.8)302 (12.0)717 (15.5)
 Missing, n52,584
Trastuzumab, n (%)
 No50,545 (95.1)33,531 (95.4)10,337 (91.6)16,909 (99.7)4,849 (99.4)2,341 (60.9)1,306 (61.9)5,104 (99.6)
 Yes2,598 (4.9)1,607 (4.6)952 (8.4)53 (0.3)30 (0.6)1,505 (39.1)805 (38.1)18 (0.4)
 Missing, n68,292
Reproductive and lifestyle risk factors
Age at menarche, median (IQR)13 (12–14)
 Missing, n35,35513 (12–14)13 (12–14)13 (12–14)13 (12–14)13 (12–14)13 (12–14)13 (12–14)
 Parity, median (IQR)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)
 Nulliparous, n (%)12,932 (14.0)8,971 (14.2)2,066 (12.9)3,633 (14.1)934 (15.0)870 (15.0)384 (13.5)787 (12.8)
 Parous, n (%)79,415 (86.0)54,292 (85.8)13,955 (87.1)22,162 (85.9)5,291 (85.0)4,928 (85.0)2,456 (86.5)5,376 (87.2)
 Missing, n29,088
Age at first full-term pregnancyb, median (IQR)25 (22–28)
 Missing, n50,96525 (22–28)24 (21–28)24 (21–28)25 (22–28)25 (22–29)25 (22–28)24 (21–27)
Breastfeeding, n (%)
 Never24,906 (39.5)16,660 (38.4)4,476 (39.9)7,039 (39.2)1,754 (41.9)1,716 (40.2)831 (41.3)1,796 (42.5)
 Ever38,195 (60.5)26,730 (61.6)6,734 (60.1)10,912 (60.8)2,435 (58.1)2,555 (59.8)1,181 (58.7)2,433 (57.5)
 Missing, n58,334
 Duration in moc, median (IQR)7 (3–15)7 (3–15)7 (3–16)7 (3–15)7 (3–15)7 (3–15)8 (3–17)6 (3–15)
 Missing, n68,870
Time since last full-term birthb,,n (%)
 ≥10 y29,200 (64.2)18,626 (63.3)5,795 (65.7)7,901 (65.5)1,822 (62.0)1,986 (63.0)1,096 (67.8)2,303 (67.3)
 5–10 y1,926 (4.2)1,115 (3.8)466 (5.3)362 (3.0)103 (3.5)177 (5.6)65 (4.0)163 (4.8)
 0–5 y1,179 (2.6)601 (2.0)393 (4.5)161 (1.3)70 (2.4)101 (3.2)51 (3.2)130 (3.8)
 Missing, n75,975
Oral contraceptives, n (%)
 Never use29,677 (44.5)20,263 (45.0)5,090 (43.4)8,398 (46.4)1,967 (45.1)2,018 (43.6)1,096 (48.6)1,923 (43.2)
 Ever use37,070 (55.5)24,799 (55.0)6,629 (56.6)9,701 (53.6)2,395 (54.9)2,608 (56.4)1,159 (51.4)2,533 (56.8)
 Missing, n54,688
MHT, n (%)
 Never use, postmenopausal28,534 (37.1)20,062 (38.3)5,088 (37.1)9,129 (41.4)2,315 (42.8)2,044 (39.0)1,108 (43.3)2,115 (39.0)
  Formere use estrogen therapy1,394 (1.8)1,041 (2.0)195 (1.4)397 (1.8)81 (1.5)77 (1.5)40 (1.6)91 (1.7)
  Formere use estrogen+progestin1,414 (1.8)1,035 (2.0)246 (1.8)490 (2.2)91 (1.7)94 (1.8)49 (1.9)124 (2.3)
  Formere use (unknown type)5,972 (7.8)4,366 (8.3)912 (6.7)1,960 (8.9)481 (8.9)291 (5.6)164 (6.4)405 (7.5)
  Currentf use estrogen therapy2,175 (2.8)1,456 (2.8)272 (2.0)562 (2.5)103 (1.9)129 (2.5)48 (1.9)119 (2.2)
  Currentf use estrogen+progestin3,755 (4.9)2,689 (5.1)458 (3.3)1,251 (5.7)181 (3.3)287 (5.5)79 (3.1)205 (3.8)
  Currentf use (unknown type)5,854 (7.6)4,398 (8.4)647 (4.7)1,896 (8.6)300 (5.5)247 (4.7)102 (4.0)236 (4.4)
 Missing, n44,547
BMId, median (IQR)25 (23–28)25 (23–29)25 (22–28)25 (23–29)26 (23–29)25 (22–28)25 (22–28)25 (23–29)
 18.5–25 kg/m2, n (%)43,302 (47.4)29,382 (46.9)7,716 (47.9)11,545 (44.2)2,813 (42.8)2,962 (49.4)1,428 (49.4)2,925 (45.8)
 <18.5 kg/m2, n (%)1,657 (1.8)1,103 (1.8)355 (2.2)405 (1.6)117 (1.8)143 (2.4)72 (2.5)132 (2.1)
 25–30 kg/m2, n (%)29,960 (32.8)20,776 (33.2)5,134 (31.9)8,939 (34.2)2,210 (33.6)1,857 (31.0)933 (32.3)2,041 (32.0)
 >=30 kg/m2, n (%)16,435 (18.0)11,353 (18.1)2,891 (18.0)5,228 (20.0)1,430 (21.8)1,034 (17.2)459 (15.9)1,284 (20.1)
 Missing, n30,081
 Adult height, median (IQR)163 (158–168)163 (159–168)163 (158–168)163 (159–168)163 (158–168)163 (158–168)162 (157–167)163 (158–168)
 Missing, n33,481
Smoking, n (%)
 Never39,512 (59.0)27,175 (59.3)7,352 (63.3)11,767 (60.1)2,795 (62.4)2,961 (64.3)1,581 (68.7)2,856 (64.0)
 Formerg17,407 (26.0)12,082 (26.3)2,424 (20.9)4,954 (25.3)1,093 (24.4)1,069 (23.2)387 (16.8)903 (20.2)
 Currenth10,073 (15.0)6,605 (14.4)1,840 (15.8)2,850 (14.6)589 (13.2)575 (12.5)332 (14.4)701 (15.7)
 Missing, n54,443
 Pack-years of smoking
  Former smokersg, median (IQR)0.8 (0.3–1.8)0.8 (0.3–1.8)0.7 (0.2–1.6)0.9 (0.3–1.9)0.8 (0.2–1.8)0.7 (0.2–1.8)0.6 (0.2–1.7)0.7 (0.2–1.6)
  Current smokersh, median (IQR)1.9 (0.9–3.1)1.9 (1.0–3.1)1.5 (0.7–2.6)2.0 (0.9–3.2)2.0 (1.0–3.1)1.6 (0.7–2.5)1.6 (0.8–2.7)1.5 (0.6–2.6)
 Missing, n62,214
Alcohol consumptionh
 g/wk, median (IQR)14.7 (0.0–57.3)16.0 (0.0–59.5)10.8 (0.0–50.7)12.0 (0.0–51.8)12.0 (0.0–49.7)15.0 (0.0–60.0)6.0 (0.0–48.3)6.0 (0.0–45.0)
 Missing, n100,522
Cumulative alcohol consumption
 g/d, median (IQR)1.9 (0.0–7.9)2.0 (0.0–8.2)1.1 (0.0–6.1)2.0 (0.0–8.4)1.7 (0.0–7.0)2.1 (0.0–7.8)0.8 (0.0–5.6)1.0 (0.0–5.7)
 Missing, n102,451
Physical activityh,i, median (IQR)3 (1–8)3 (1–9)3 (1–8)5 (1–11)4 (2–11)4 (1–9)4 (1–9)4 (1–10)
 <1.8 hours/wk, n (%)7,103 (33.3)4,643 (31.6)1,043 (31.1)1,564 (27.1)305 (24.6)437 (28.2)222 (29.1)418 (31.0)
 ≥1.8 – <5.5 hours/wk, n (%)7,063 (33.1)4,679 (31.9)1,106 (33.0)1,545 (26.8)424 (34.2)491 (31.7)231 (30.4)382 (28.3)
 ≥5.5 hours/wk, n (%)7,154 (33.6)5,363 (36.5)1,205 (35.9)2,656 (46.1)510 (41.2)619 (40.1)308 (40.5)549 (40.7)
 Missing, n100,115
  • Note: Percentages shown in the table might not sum up to 100% due to rounding.

  • aNumbers for subtypes do not add to total due to missing.

  • bFor parous women only.

  • cFor women who breastfed only.

  • dBMI at interview.

  • eMore than 6 mo before diagnosis.

  • fAt diagnosis or within 6 mo before diagnosis.

  • gMore than 1 year before diagnosis.

  • hAt diagnosis or within 1 year before diagnosis.

  • iCategories based on the tertiles of the observed distribution of the variable.

  • Numbers are given for parous women, excluding those who had a post-diagnosis last full-term birth, while percentages are computed based on all women with non-missing values, including nulliparous and women who had a post-diagnosis full-term birth.

  • Numbers are given for postmenopausal women, while percentages are computed based on all women with non-missing values, including pre-perimenopausal women.