Table 1.

Characteristics of the study population stratified for prospective cohorts.

EPIC ItalyaMCCSbNOWACc
(n = 1,112)(n = 7,250)(n = 632)
ControlsCasesPdControlsCasesPdControlsCasesPd
N5565563,4823,482316316
Agee53.5 (6.9)53.7 (7.0)58.9 (7.6)59.1 (7.6)55.9 (4.3)55.9 (4.3)
Sex (% females)385 (69%)385 (69%)1,356 (39%)1,356 (39%)316 (100%)316 (100%)
BMI
 Normal weight259 (47%)232 (42%)2,647 (76%)2,583 (74%)155 (49%)190 (61%)
 Overweight216 (39%)238 (43%)659 (19%)662 (19%)126 (40%)90 (29%)
 Obese79 (14%)84 (15%)0.25176 (5%)237 (7%)0.0133 (11%)34 (11%)0.01
Smoking
 Never268 (49%)234 (43%)1,671 (48%)1,613 (46%)120 (38%)83 (26%)
 Former155 (28%)141 (26%)1,335 (38%)1,379 (40%)92 (29%)93 (29%)
 Current128 (23%)171 (31%)0.01476 (14%)490 (14%)0.38101 (32%)141 (44%)0.001
Physical activity
 High209 (38%)183 (34%)714 (21%)719 (21%)60 (20%)78 (27%)
 Medium179 (32%)190 (35%)2,021 (58%)2,010 (58%)191 (64%)169 (57%)
 Low163 (30%)173 (32%)0.31747 (22%)753 (22%)0.9647 (16%)47 (16%)0.16
Alcohol
 Nondrinkers70 (13%)72 (13%)984 (28%)986 (28%)49 (16%)53 (17%)
 Occasional drinkers346 (63%)319 (58%)2,000 (57%)1,970 (56%)251 (81%)246 (78%)
 Habitual drinkers134 (24%)155 (28%)0.26498 (14%)526 (15%)0.6111 (4%)16 (5%)0.57
Diet
 High quality52 (9%)43 (8%)528 (15%)526 (15%)98 (32%)104 (34%)
 Medium quality272 (49%)282 (52%)2,673 (77%)2,644 (76%)97 (31%)113 (37%)
 Low quality226 (41%)221 (40%)0.58281 (8%)312 (9%)0.41114 (37%)92 (30%)0.16
Education
 High63 (11%)58 (11%)684 (20%)674 (19%)73 (24%)82 (27%)
 Medium323 (59%)322 (59%)2,100 (60%)2,071 (59%)113 (37%)104 (34%)
 Low165 (30%)166 (30%)0.91698 (20%)737 (21%)0.51117 (39%)122 (40%)0.62
  • Note: Bold type indicates statistical significance (P < 0.05).

  • aProportion of cases: breast cancer (45%), lung cancer (30%), and colorectal cancer (25%).

  • bProportion of cases: breast cancer (11%), lung cancer (9%), colorectal cancer (23%), gastric cancer (5%), kidney cancer (4%), prostate cancer (24%), UCC (12%), and MBCNs (12%).

  • cProportion of cases: breast cancer (59%) and lung cancer (41%).

  • dP values for the χ2 test.

  • eAverage case-matched control age differences in absolute values (±SD): 0.25 years (±0.26) in EPIC Italy, 1.00 (± 1.01) in MCCS, and 0.13 (±0.33) in NOWAC.