Table 2.

Distribution of log(SEM) by cohort and cancer risk factors, in the overall samples and in controls only.

EPIC Italy, all samplesControls onlyMCCS, all samplesControls onlyNOWAC, all samplesControls only
Distribution of log(SEM)NaMean (SD)P (R2)bMean (SD)P (R2)bNaMean (SD)P (R2)bMean (SD)P (R2)bNaMean (SD)P (R2)bMean (SD)P (R2)b
Age
 <50328 (29%)5.79 (0.98)5.79 (0.98)1,029 (15%)6.55 (0.98)6.54 (0.98)61 (10%)5.04 (0.65)5.16 (0.67)
 50–55257 (23%)6.00 (0.98)6.01 (0.91)925 (13%)6.59 (1.03)6.58 (1.02)180 (28%)5.32 (0.81)5.44 (0.83)
 55–60335 (30%)6.11 (1.02)6.04 (0.93)1,289 (19%)6.66 (1.09)6.59 (1.06)244 (39%)5.46 (0.81)5.46 (0.92)
 >60192 (17%)6.28 (1.06)4 × 10−7 (2.86%)6.10 (0.84)0.02 (1.70%)3,721 (53%)6.69 (1.07)9 × 10−5 (0.26%)6.65 (1.05)0.05 (0.24%)147 (23%)5.74 (0.94)1 × 10−7 (5.42%)5.7 (0.9)0.03 (2.75%)
Sex
 Males342 (31%)6.08 (0.99)6.04 (0.89)4,252 (61%)6.60 (1.02)6.58 (1.00)0 (0%)0 (0)0 (0)
 Females770 (69%)5.99 (1.03)0.16 (0.17%)5.94 (0.95)0.24 (0.24%)2,712 (39%)6.73 (1.11)1 × 10−7 (0.35%)6.67 (1.09)0.008 (0.20%)632 (100%)5.44 (0.87)5.48 (0.88)
Smoking
 Never502 (45%)5.98 (1.00)5.99 (0.96)3,284 (47%)6.63 (1.07)6.56 (1.04)203 (32%)5.43 (0.86)5.4 (0.84)
 Former296 (27%)5.97 (0.97)5.93 (0.88)2,714 (39%)6.68 (1.06)6.67 (1.05)185 (29%)5.44 (0.87)5.49 (0.9)
 Current299 (27%)6.16 (1.11)0.03 (0.66%)5.97 (0.96)0.84 (0.06%)966 (14%)6.64 (1.01)0.37 (0.04%)6.63 (1.01)0.02 (0.17%)242 (38%)5.46 (0.9)0.94 (0.02%)5.53 (0.89)0.55 (0.38%)
BMIc
 Normal weight491 (44%)5.95 (1.01)5.88 (0.92)5,230 (75%)6.64 (1.05)6.60 (1.04)345 (55%)5.45 (0.88)5.46 (0.86)
 Overweight454 (41%)6.04 (0.99)5.99 (0.89)1,321 (19%)6.66 (1.10)6.58 (1.03)216 (34%)5.41 (0.87)5.52 (0.93)
 Obese163 (15%)6.17 (1.12)0.04 (0.59%)6.18 (1.05)0.04 (1.14%)413 (6%)6.79 (1.05)0.01 (0.15%)6.68 (1.05)0.03 (0.19%)67 (11%)5.52 (0.87)0.65 (0.14%)5.46 (0.82)0.88 (0.08%)
Physical activity
 High392 (35%)5.99 (1.03)5.97 (0.99)1,433 (21%)6.70 (1.05)6.67 (1.01)94 (16%)5.44 (0.92)5.27 (0.89)
 Medium369 (33%)6.00 (1.02)5.93 (0.91)4,031 (58%)6.66 (1.06)6.63 (1.04)360 (61%)5.44 (0.87)5.54 (0.91)
 Low336 (30%)6.10 (1.03)0.31 (0.22%)6.02 (0.89)0.68 (0.14%)1,500 (22%)6.58 (1.05)0.01 (0.12%)6.52 (1.05)0.008 (0.17%)138 (23%)5.43 (0.87)0.98 (0.01%)5.42 (0.78)0.16 (1.24%)
Alcohol
 No142 (13%)6.03 (1.02)5.96 (0.95)1,970 (28%)6.66 (1.09)6.62 (1.06)102 (16%)5.43 (0.75)5.39 (0.81)
 Occasional665 (60%)6.00 (1.01)5.94 (0.91)3,970 (57%)6.65 (1.05)6.61 (1.02)497 (79%)5.44 (0.88)5.48 (0.88)
 Habitual289 (26%)6.08 (1.05)0.49 (0.31%)6.04 (0.98)0.55 (0.20%)1,024 (15%)6.63 (1.04)0.74 (0.00%)6.60 (1.04)0.67 (0.01%)27 (4%)5.64 (1.1)0.49 (0.23%)5.82 (1.02)0.24 (0.92%)
Diet
 High95 (9%)5.90 (0.84)6.00 (0.95)1,054 (15%)6.71 (1.06)6.56 (0.96)206 (33%)5.48 (0.88)5.51 (0.89)
 Medium554 (50%)6.06 (1.02)6.01 (0.96)5,317 (76%)6.64 (1.06)6.60 (1.04)210 (34%)5.42 (0.82)5.41 (0.82)
 Low447 (40%)6.01 (1.06)0.32 (0.21%)5.81 (0.83)0.16 (0.67%)593 (9%)6.65 (1.04)0.22 (0.04%)6.71 (1.04)0.02 (0.13%)202 (33%)5.44 (0.92)0.74 (0.1%)5.54 (0.94)0.51 (0.44%)
Education
 High121 (11%)5.94 (0.86)5.94 (0.91)1,358 (19%)6.65 (1.01)6.54 (1.04)239 (39%)5.33 (0.86)5.36 (0.85)
 Medium645 (58%)5.96 (1.02)5.95 (0.95)4,171 (60%)6.68 (1.06)6.65 (1.05)217 (36%)5.45 (0.87)5.45 (0.88)
Low331 (30%)6.18 (1.07)0.003 (1.01)6.02 (0.93)0.71 (0.12%)1,435 (21%)6.59 (1.07)0.01 (0.04%)6.57 (0.99)0.62 (0.007%)155 (25%)5.56 (0.86)0.04 (1.1%)5.71 (0.89)0.02 (2.68%)
  • aMissing data are not reported in the table.

  • bP values were derived from ANOVA model using the logarithm of the total number of SEMs as the outcome, and each lifestyle variable as the independent predictor, and R2 indicates the proportion of variance explained by each predictor considered in this study.

  • cNormal weight, BMI <25; overweight, BMI 25 to <30 and obese, BMI ≥30.