Table 1.

The comparison of the demographic and clinical characteristics between the chronic opioid users and the control group.

VariableChronic opioid user (n = 25,153)Control group (n = 326,548)P
Age, year61.0 (13.0)48.3 (16.4)<0.001
Sex, male9,568 (38.0)139,936 (42.9)<0.001
Income level (deciles distribution ratio)<0.001
 1st (lowest income level)1,775 (7.1)26,162 (8.0)
 2nd1,170 (4.7)20,247 (6.2)
 3rd1,347 (5.4)24,337 (7.5)
 4th1,420 (5.6)27,233 (8.3)
 5th1,492 (5.9)27,927 (8.6)
 6th3,040 (12.1)47,563 (14.6)
 7th2,457 (9.8)34,453 (10.6)
 8th2,909 (11.6)36,581 (11.2)
 9th3,797 (15.1)40,554 (12.4)
 10th (highest income level)5,746 (22.8)41,491 (12.7)
Residence
 Capital city (Seoul)7,688 (30.6)58,723 (18.0)
 Metropolitan city4,448 (17.7)84,750 (26.0)
 Others13,017 (51.8)183,075 (56.1)
Charlson comorbidity index2.8 (2.1)1.5 (1.7)<0.001
 Congestive heart failure2,182 (8.7)8,766 (2.7)<0.001
 Chronic pulmonary disease10,654 (42.4)107,172 (32.8)<0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease5,408 (21.5)23,434 (7.2)<0.001
 Dementia266 (1.1)1,053 (0.3)<0.001
 DM with chronic complication4,491 (17.9)16,202 (5.0)<0.001
 DM without chronic complication8,779 (34.9)42,276 (12.9)<0.001
 Hemi- or paraplegia527 (2.1)2,745 (0.8)<0.001
 Myocardial infarction1,373 (5.5)2,754 (0.8)<0.001
 Mild liver disease7,548 (30.0)68,845 (21.1)<0.001
 Severe liver disease309 (1.2)2,897 (0.9)<0.001
 Peptic ulcer disease10,964 (43.6)104,314 (31.9)<0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease5,574 (22.2)39,372 (12.1)<0.001
 Renal disease691 (2.7)2,684 (0.8)<0.001
 Rheumatic disease2,871 (11.4)17,346 (5.3)<0.001
Surgery at 20105,896 (23.4)58,719 (18.0)<0.001
Other chronic analgesic use
 Paracetamol81 (0.3)285 (0.1)<0.001
 Gabapentin511 (2.0)1,925 (0.6)<0.001
 Pregabalin263 (1.0)697 (0.2)<0.001
 NSAIDs40 (0.2)126 (0.0)<0.001
  • Abbreviation: DM, diabetes mellitus.