Table 1.

Baseline characteristics by tomato intake, grams per day by quartile, the Singapore Chinese Healthy Study, 1993–2015.

First quartileSecond quartileThird quartileFourth quartile
Characteristics(<1.95)(1.95–4.81)(4.81–8.83)(≥8.83)
Age, years, median (25th, 75th percentiles)57 (51, 64)56 (50, 63)55 (49, 61)54 (49, 61)
Female sex, n (%)8,753 (57.2%)8,740 (57.0%)8,288 (53.9%)8,247 (53.8%)
Cantonese dialect, n (%)6,472 (42.3%)6,795 (44.3%)7,197 (46.8%)7,861 (51.3%)
Education, secondary school or higher, n (%)3,453 (22.6%)3,857 (25.2%)4,683 (30.5%)5,443 (35.5%)
Body mass index, kg/m2, median (25th, 75th percentiles)23.11 (21.08, 24.46)23.11 (21.10, 24.61)23.11 (21.23, 24.73)23.11 (21.10, 24.80)
Smoking statusa (%)
 Never smoker10,196 (66.7%)10,689 (69.7%)10,815 (70.3%)10,883 (71.0%)
 Light smoker4,479 (29.3%)3,999 (26.1%)4,022 (26.2%)3,934 (25.8%)
 Heavy smoker619 (4.0%)640 (4.2%)536 (3.5%)509 (3.3%)
One or more alcoholic drinks per day, n (%)759 (5.0%)635 (4.1%)692 (4.5%)813 (5.3%)
Diabetes, n (%)1,529 (10%)1,503 (9.8%)1,200 (7.8%)1,237 (8.1%)
Any weekly physical activityb, n (%)4,313 (28.2%)4,819 (31.4%)5,343 (34.8%)5,763 (37.60)
Total energy intake, kCal/day, median (25th, 75th percentiles)1,285 (1,022, 1,625)1,356 (1,101, 1,708)1,526 (1,239, 1,890)1,706 (1,362, 2,148)
Lycopene intake, mcg/day, median (25th, 75th percentiles)192 (45, 719)468 (183, 907)856 (373, 1414)1,328 (768, 2110)
  • Note: Chi-square test was used for categorical variables; Kruskal–Wallis test was used for continuous variables; all P-values <0.0001.

  • aCigarette smoking: The "heavy" smokers were those who started to smoke before 15 years of age and smoked 13 or more cigarettes, all remaining ever smokers were defined as light smokers.

  • bPhysical activity represents amount of strenuous physical activity and/or vigorous work.