Table 2.

Baseline characteristics by HCC status, the Singapore Chinese Healthy Study, 1993–2015.

HCC casesNoncases
Characteristics(n = 561)(n = 60,760)
Age, years, median (25th, 75th percentiles)a60 (53, 65)55 (49, 62)
Female sex, n (%)a156 (27.8%)33,872 (55.8%)
Cantonese dialect, n (%)a213 (38.0%)28,112 (46.3%)
Education, secondary school or higher, n (%)144 (25.7%)17,292 (28.5%)
Body mass index, kg/m2, median (25th, 75th percentiles)a23.4 (22.0, 26.0)23.1 (21.1–24.7)
Smoking statusb (%)a
 Never smoker281 (50.1%)42,302 (69.6%)
 Light smoker232 (41.4%)16,202 (26.7%)
 Heavy smoker48 (8.6%)2,256 (3.7%)
One or more alcoholic drinks per day, n (%)a53 (9.5%)2,846 (4.7%)
Diabetes, n (%)a85 (15.2%)5,384 (8.9%)
Any weekly physical activityc, n (%)204 (36.4%)20,034 (33.0%)
Tomato intake, grams/day, median (25th, 75th percentiles)a3.85 (1.33, 7.76)4.82 (1.98, 8.84)
Total energy intake, kCal/day, median (25th, 75th percentiles)1,475 (1,172, 1,942)1,460 (1,162, 1,853)
Lycopene intake, mcg/day, median (25th, 75th percentiles)654 (237, 1313)694 (265, 1365)
  • Note: Chi-square test was used for categorical variables; Wilcoxon two-sample test was used for continuous variables.

  • aP-values <0.0001.

  • bCigarette smoking: The "heavy" smokers were those who started to smoke before 15 years of age and smoked 13 or more cigarettes, all remaining ever smokers were defined as light smokers.

  • cPhysical activity represents amount of strenuous physical activity and/or vigorous work.