Table 1.

Characteristics of included studies, divided by cancer site.

First author, year (reference)RegionCohort nameStudy design, cohort years range/ageFollow-up (years)N cases/populationAcrylamide average intake (μg/day)aAcrylamide intake by categories (μg/day)aCancer risk in all women RR (95% CI)bCancer risk among never smokers RR (95% CI)bAdjustments factors
Breast cancer
Burley, 2010 (30)United KingdomUK Women's CohortCohort 1995–1998 age 35–69111,084/35,37215Q1: 6Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Premenopausal and postmenopausal women separately and combined, first as a simple model adjusting for age, smoking status and amount smoked, weight, height, physical activity, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy use, parity, age at menarche, alcohol intake, energy intake other than from alcohol, and level of education
Q2: 111.06 (0.83–1.35)0.87 (0.63–1.20)
Q3: 151.05 (0.82–1.34)0.95 (0.69–1.30)
Q4: 201.12 (0.87–1.45)0.96 (0.69–1.34)
Q5: 321.16 (0.88-1.52)0.98 (0.69–1.40)
Hogervorst, 2007 (7)The NetherlandsNetherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancerCase–cohort 1986–1997 age 55–6911.31,835/62,573 (2,247 subcohortc)21Q1: 9.5Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Age, age at menarche, age at menopause, age at first childbirth, parity, duration of oral contraceptives use, duration of postmenopausal hormone use, BMI, height, current smoking, quantity of smoking, duration of smoking, nonoccupational physical activity, energy intake, trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake, carbohydrate intake, and alcohol consumption
Q2: 140.80 (0.64–1.02)0.97 (0.72–1.32)
Q3: 17.90.92 (0.72–1.17)1.17 (0.85–1.61)
Q4: 24.30.86 (0.67–1.10)1.00 (0.73–1.38)
Q5: 36.80.93 (0.73–1.19)1.10 (0.80–1.52)
Hogervorst, 2019 (44)The NetherlandsNetherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancerCase–cohort 1986–2006 age 55–6920.31,238/62,573 (1,449 subcohortc)21Q1: 9.5Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Age, age at menarche, age at menopause, age at first childbirth, parity, ever use of oral contraceptives, ever use of postmenopausal hormone treatment, height, BMI, educational level, energy intake, history of benign breast disease, family history of breast cancer, smoking status, smoking quantity, and smoking duration
Q2: 140.88 (0.69–1.11)1.08 (0.78–1.49)
Q3: 17.91.01 (0.79–1.29)1.44 (1.04–2.01)
Q4: 24.30.93 (0.73–1.20)1.34 (0.96–1.86)
Q5: 36.80.85 (0.66–1.09)1.18 (0.85–1.64)
Kotemori, 2018a (31)JapanJapan Public Health Center-based Prospective StudyCohort 1990–2013 age 45–7415.4792/48,9107T1: 3.6Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Age, area, BMI, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, age at first delivery, number of deliveries, menopausal status and age at menopause, use of exogenous female hormones, smoking status, and alcohol intake
T2: 6.31.00 (0.84–1.18)0.97 (0.81–1.17)
T3: 11.10.95 (0.79–1.14)0.93 (0.77–1.12)
Larsson, 2009a (32)SwedenSwedish Mammography CohortCohort 1987–2007 age ≈5417.42,952/61,43324.6Q1: 16.9Ref 1.00dRef 1.00dAge, education, BMI, height, parity, age at first birth, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, use of postmenopausal hormones, family history of breast cancer, history of benign breast disease, alcohol intake, coffee intake, energy-adjusted cereal fiber intake, and total energy intake
Q2: 22.31.02 (0.92–1.14)1.18 (0.92–1.51)
Q3: 26.40.95 (0.85–1.06)1.03 (0.78–1.37)
Q4: 32.50.91 (0.80–1.02)0.91 (0.65–1.27)
Mucci, 2005 (33)SwedenSwedish Women's Lifestyle and Health CohortCohort 1991–2002 age 39 ± 511667/43,40425.9Q1: 12Ref 1.00NAAge, education, alcohol intake, smoking status, oral contraceptive use, parity, age at first birth, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, fiber intake, saturated fat intake, and total energy intake
Q2: 200.9 (0.7–1.1)e
Q3: 251.0 (0.8–1.3)e
Q4: 311.0 (0.8–1.3)e
Q5: 441.19 (0.91–1.55)
Pedersen, 2010 (42)The NetherlandsNetherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancerCase–cohort 1986–1999 age 55–6913.32,225/62,573 (2,247 subcohortc)21Q1: 9.5Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Age, age at menarche, age at menopause, age at first childbirth, parity, BMI, family history of breast cancer, history of benign breast disease, use of oral contraceptive, postmenopausal hormone use, energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking, quantity of smoking
Q2: 140.91 (0.73–1.23)1.11 (0.84–1.48)
Q3: 17.90.96 (0.76–1.19)1.28 (0.95–1.72)
Q4: 24.30.89 (0.72–1.12)1.08 (0.80–1.45)
Q5: 36.80.92 (0.73–1.15)1.15 (0.86–1.53)
Pelucchi, 2006 (28)Italy-SwitzerlandCase–control studyCase–control 1991–20012,900/3,122 controls23.3–29.24Q1: <10.57Ref 1.00NAAge, study center, education, BMI, energy intake, family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, and parity
Q2: 10.57–20.581.01 (0.85–1.20)
Q3: 20.581.01 (0.85–1.20)
Q4: 20.58–34.251.09 (0.92–1.31)
Q5: >34.251.06 (0.88–1.28)
Wilson, 2009 (34)United StatesNurses' Health Study IICohort 1989–2005 age 25–42151,179/116,67120.2Q1: 10.8Ref 1.00dRef 1.00dAge in months and calendar year and adjusted for the following: BMI, height, oral contraceptive use, parity and age at first birth, age at menarche, family history of breast cancer, history of benign breast disease, smoking, physical activity, animal fat, glycemic load, alcohol intake, and total energy intake
Q2: 16.60.95 (0.79–1.14)0.91 (0.73–1.14)
Q3: 20.20.94 (0.78–1.13)0.94 (0.75–1.18)
Q4: 24.61.03 (0.87–1.24)1.08 (0.86–1.34)
Q5: 37.80.92 (0.76–1.11)0.82 (0.64–1.05)
Wilson, 2010 (35)United StatesNurses' Health StudyCohort 1980–2006 age 33–55266,301/88,67216Q1: 9Ref 1.00dRef 1.00dAge, smoking, BMI, height, menopausal status/age at menopause/postmenopausal hormone use, parity and age at first birth, family history of breast cancer, benign breast disease, age at menarche, physical activity, folate, glycemic index, animal fat intake, alcohol intake, and energy intake
Q2: 130.93 (0.86–1.01)0.91 (0.81–1.02)
Q3: 160.98 (0.91–1.06)0.93 (0.83–1.05)
Q4: 190.98 (0.90–1.06)0.94 (0.84–1.06)
Q5: 260.95 (0.87–1.03)0.89 (0.78–1.02)
Endometrial cancer
Hogervorst, 2007 (7)The NetherlandsNetherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancerCase–cohort 1986–1997 age 55–6911.3327/62,573 (1,911 subcohortc)21Q1: 9.5Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Age, age at menarche, age at menopause, age at first childbirth, parity, duration of oral contraceptives use, duration of postmenopausal hormone use, BMI, height, current smoking, quantity of smoking, duration of smoking, nonoccupational physical activity, energy intake, trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake, carbohydrate intake, and alcohol consumption
Q2: 140.95 (0.59–1.54)1.16 (0.63–2.15)
Q3: 17.90.94 (0.56–1.56)1.35 (0.73–2.51)
Q4: 24.31.21 (0.74–1.98)1.30 (0.69–2.46)
Q5: 36.81.29 (0.81–2.07)1.99 (1.12–3.52)
Hogervorst, 2016 (43)The NetherlandsNetherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancerCase–cohort 1986–2006 age 55–6920.3393/62,573 (1,474 subcohortc)21Q1: 9.5Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Age, age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, ever use of oral contraceptives, ever use of postmenopausal hormone use, BMI, and in the analyses for all women: current smoking, quantity of smoking, duration of smoking, family history of endometrial cancer, and energy intake
Q2: 140.87 (0.60–1.27)1.07 (0.67–1.70)
Q3: 17.90.86 (0.58–1.28)1.14 (0.70–1.86)
Q4: 24.30.95 (0.64–1.41)1.08 (0.66–1.77)
Q5: 36.81.03 (0.71–1.51)1.44 (0.90–2.28)
Kotemori, 2018b (36)JapanJapan Public Health Center-based Prospective StudyCohort age 45–7415.4161/47,1876.3Q1: 3.7Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Age, area, BMI, age at menarche, age at first delivery, number of deliveries, menopause status and age at menopause, use of exogenous female hormones, smoking status, and alcohol intake
Q2: 6.40.83 (0.57–1.22)0.85 (0.57–1.25)
Q3: 11.10.85 (0.54–1.33)0.82 (0.51–1.31)
Larsson, 2009b (40)SwedenSwedish Mammography CohortCohort 1987–2007 age ≈5417.7687/61,22624.6Q1: 16.9Ref 1.00dRef 1.00dAge, education, BMI, parity, age at first birth, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, use of postmenopausal hormones, energy-adjusted carbohydrate intake, and total energy intake
Q2: 22.31.10 (0.89–1.36)1.31 (0.85–2.04)
Q3: 26.41.08 (0.88–1.34)1.30 (0.83–2.02)
Q4: 32.50.96 (0.76–1.21)1.20 (0.76–1.90)
Obon-Santacana, 2014 (37)EuropeEPIC cohortCohort 1992–199861,382/301,11324Q1: 10.8Ref 1.00Ref 1.00BMI, smoking status, history of diabetes, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy use, baseline menopause status combined with age at menopause, parity, and age at menarche
Q2: 17.21.05 (0.86–1.29)1.03 (0.79–1.34)
Q3: 21.91.11 (0.90–1.36)1.04 (0.79–1.36)
Q4: 27.70.88 (0.71–1.10)0.82 (0.61–1.10)
Q5: 39.50.98 (0.78–1.25)1.01 (0.75–1.38)
Pelucchi, 2016 (29)ItalyCase–control studyCase–control 1992–2006454/908 controls29.8Q1: <17.7Ref 1.00fRef 1.00fStudy center and age, and adjusted for period of interview, education, tobacco smoking, BMI, occupational physical activity, history of diabetes, age at menarche, menopausal status/age at menopause, parity, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, and total energy intake
Q2: 17.7–24.01.02 (0.67–1.54)1.21 (0.75–1.95)
Q3: 24.0–30.41.20 (0.80–1.80)1.24 (0.76–2.01)
Q4: 30.4–39.21.00 (0.65–1.54)1.02 (0.60–1.73)
Q5: >39.21.17 (0.73–1.85)1.28 (0.73–2.25)
Wilson, 2010 (35)U.S.A.Nurses' Health StudyCohort 1980–2006 age 33–5526484/69,01916Q1: 9Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Smoking, BMI, age at menarche, menopausal status/age at menopause/postmenopausal hormone use, parity, oral contraceptive use, high blood pressure, diabetes, physical activity, caffeine intake, and energy intake
Q2: 131.12 (0.83–1.50)0.97 (0.64–1.46)
Q3: 161.31 (0.97–1.77)1.35 (0.90–2.02)
Q4: 191.35 (0.99–1.84)1.47 (0.97–2.24)
Q5: 261.41 (1.01–1.97)1.43 (0.90–2.28)
Ovarian cancer
Hogervorst, 2007 (7)The NetherlandsNetherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancerCase–cohort 1986–1997 age 55–6911.3300/62,573 (2,216 subcohortc)21Q1: 9.5Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Age, age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, duration of oral contraceptives use, duration of postmenopausal hormone use, BMI, height, current smoking, quantity of smoking, duration of smoking, saturated fat intake, and trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake
Q2: 141.22 (0.73–2.01)1.60 (0.85–3.02)
Q3: 17.91.12 (0.65–1.92)1.64 (0.84–3.19)
Q4: 24.31.28 (0.77–2.13)1.86 (1.00–3.48)
Q5: 36.81.78 (1.10–2.88)2.22 (1.20–4.08)
Hogervorst, 2017 (41)The NetherlandsNetherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancerCase–cohort 1986–2006 age 55–6920.3373/625,73 (1,474 subcohortc)21Q1: 9.5Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Age, age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, ever use of oral contraceptives, ever use of postmenopausal hormone treatment, height, BMI, energy intake, and in the analyses for all women: smoking status, smoking quantity, and smoking duration
Q2: 141.07 (0.73–1.54)1.37 (0.85–2.21)
Q3: 17.91.10 (0.75–1.61)1.61 (0.98–2.65)
Q4: 24.31.05 (0.71–1.53)1.50 (0.92–2.44)
Q5: 36.81.38 (0.95–1.99)1.85 (1.15–2.95)
Kotemori, 2018b (36)JapanJapan Public Health Center-based Prospective StudyCohort Study age 45–7415.4122/47,1876.3Q1: 3.7Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Age, area, BMI, age at menarche, age at first delivery, number of deliveries, menopause status and age at menopause, use of exogenous female hormones, smoking status, and alcohol intake
Q2: 6.40.90 (0.59–1.38)0.94 (0.60–1.48)
Q3: 11.10.77 (0.49–1.23)0.82 (0.50–1.33)
Larsson, 2009c (38)SwedenSwedish Mammography CohortCohort 1987–2007 age ≈5417.5368/61,05724Q1: 16.9Ref 1.00dRef 1.00dAge, education, BMI, parity, age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, use of postmenopausal hormones, and total energy intake
Q2: 22.30.91 (0.68–1.21)1.32 (0.71–2.45)
Q3: 26.40.97 (0.73–1.29)1.10 (0.57–2.09)
Q4: 32.50.86 (0.63–1.16)0.97 (0.49–1.93)
Obon- Santacana, 2015 (39)EuropeEPIC cohort studyCohort 1992–199861,191/325,00623.8Q1: 10.8Ref 1.00NABMI, smoking, history of diabetes, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy use, baseline menopause status combined with age at menopause, parity, and age at menarche
Q2: 17.20.89 (0.72–1.11)
Q3: 21.90.87 (0.70–1.09)
Q4: 27.71.08 (0.87–1.34)
Q5: 39.50.97 (0.76–1.23)
Pelucchi, 2006 (28)Italy-SwitzerlandCase–control studyCase–control 1991–20011,031/2,411 controls23.3–29.24Q1: <10.57Ref 1.00NAAge, study center, education, BMI, energy intake, family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, and parity
Q2: 10.57–20.581.03 (0.79–1.34)
Q3: 20.581.09 (0.83–1.44)
Q4: 20.58–34.251.01 (0.76–1.34)
Q5: >34.250.97 (0.73–1.31)
Wilson, 2010 (35)United StatesNurses' Health StudyCohort 1980–2006 age 33–5526484/80,01116Q1: 9Ref 1.00Ref 1.00Smoking, BMI, parity, oral contraceptive use menopausal status and post-menopausal hormone use, tubal ligation, physical activity, caffeine intake, and energy intake
Q2: 130.93 (0.68–1.29)1.17 (0.72–1.88)
Q3: 161.29 (0.94–1.76)1.04 (0.63–1.74)
Q4: 191.17 (0.84–1.64)1.11 (0.63–1.94)
Q5: 261.25 (0.88–1.77)1.19 (0.66–2.15)
  • Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; NA, not assessed; Ref, reference; RR, risk ratio.

  • aMedian or mean value of each category reported whenever available, otherwise, cut-off points are reported in italics (28, 29).

  • bWhere not differently reported, all values describe HR with 95% CI.

  • cWe reported sample size of the total cohort and of the subcohort selected as control population, randomly drawn from total cohort according to the case–cohort design.

  • dRate ratio (95% CI).

  • eData retrieved from Hogervorst 2018 (22).

  • fOR (95% CI).