Table 4.

HRs (95% CIs) for site-specific cancer risk associated with diabetes duration.a

Diabetes duration
<6 yearsb≥6 yearsb1-Year increment
CancerHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HRPc
Esophagus1.23 (0.81–1.88)1.40 (0.96–2.05)1.010.526
Stomach1.58 (1.03–2.42)1.23 (0.79–1.92)1.010.165
Colon1.22 (1.00–1.49)1.14 (0.92–1.40)1.000.628
Rectum1.40 (1.04–1.90)1.09 (0.77–1.55)1.000.459
Liver1.73 (1.07–2.78)3.78 (2.72–5.27)1.04<0.001
Pancreas1.32 (0.71–2.45)0.93 (0.47–1.85)0.990.713
Kidney1.16 (0.84–1.59)1.03 (0.74–1.41)1.000.749
Bladder0.96 (0.66–1.43)1.89 (1.43–2.50)1.02<0.001
Breast premenopausal0.67 (0.32–1.41)0.91 (0.56–1.48)1.000.804
Breast postmenopausal1.18 (0.97–1.45)1.11 (0.90–1.37)1.010.061
Endometrium1.94 (1.42–2.64)1.30 (0.91–1.86)1.020.050
Ovary0.87 (0.41–1.85)1.26 (0.69–1.31)1.000.926
Prostate0.64 (0.52–0.76)0.72 (0.62–0.84)0.98<0.001
Lung among ever smokers1.13 (0.90–1.40)1.20 (0.99–1.47)1.010.149
Lung among never smokers0.43 (0.14–1.35)1.15 (0.60–2.19)0.990.541
Thyroid1.19 (0.58–2.45)1.06 (0.52–2.16)1.020.093
Melanoma0.79 (0.56–1.12)1.06 (0.79–1.41)1.000.737
Brain0.90 (0.51–1.57)0.92 (0.55–1.55)1.010.526
NHL-DLBCL0.55 (0.28–1.08)1.44 (0.96–2.15)1.020.053
Multiple myeloma0.87 (0.50–1.52)0.74 (0.42–1.29)0.980.318
  • Abbreviations: DLBCL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; NHL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  • aHRs and 95% CI multivariable-adjusted for age, sex, education (≥ college), non-white race, smoking status (present, past, current), smoking-years (packs), alcohol intake (never, special occasion, 1–3 drinks/week, 3–4 drinks/week, daily), physical activity (quintiles of MET-hour/week), and BMI (kg/m2; model 2, as described in the text). HRs for cancer risk at specific sites are additionally adjusted as reported in the footnotes of Table 2.

  • bNondiabetic group was used as reference group.

  • cP value associated with the HR for 1-year increment of diabetes duration.