Table 5.

Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for the association of diabetes with site-specific cancer risk stratified by levels of body mass indexa

BMI (kg/m2) categories
<2525–30≥30
CancerNo. of casesb among diabeticsNo. of cases among diabeticsHR (95% CI)No. of cases among diabeticsHR (95% CI)
Esophagus8261.49 (0.98–2.26)300.91 (0.60–1.37)
Stomach41528
Colon13560.93 (0.71–1.22)1331.33 (1.09–1.61)
Rectum9301.24 (0.85–1.81)401.23 (0.86–1.75)
Liver6243.19 (1.99–5.12)402.61 (1.73–3.95)
Pancreas6411
Kidney6261.30 (0.87–1.95)541.33 (0.95–1.87)
Bladder13271.30 (0.85–2.01)461.06 (0.71–1.59)
Breast premenopausal4822
Breast postmenopausal24570.99 (0.76–1.29)1431.21 (1.01–1.44)
Endometrium1222.28 (1.45–3.59)621.32 (1.00–1.75)
Ovary2718
Prostate461880.83 (0.72–0.97)1600.64 (0.54–0.75)
Lung among ever smokers28761.30 (1.02–1.65)951.00 (0.79–1.26)
Lung among never smokers347
Thyroid558
Brain21017
Melanoma8360.69 (0.46–1.14)601.07 (0.79–1.44)
NHL – DLBCL3924
Multiple myeloma11114
  • Note: In each category of BMI, the nondiabetic group was used as reference category.

  • Abbreviations: DLBCL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; NHL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  • aHRs and 95% CI adjusted for age, sex, education (≥ college), non-white race, smoking status (present, past, current), smoking-years (packs), alcohol intake (never, special occasion, 1–3 drinks/week, 3–4 drinks/week, daily), physical activity (quintiles of MET-hour/week), and BMI (kg/m2; model 2, as described in the text). HRs for cancer risk at specific sites are additionally adjusted as reported in the footnotes of Table 2.

  • bNo diabetes associated HRs were estimated for participants with BMI <25 kg/m2 since few cancer cases occurred among diabetes in that category.