Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study cohort by diabetes status and glycated hemoglobin level.

DiabetesGlycated hemoglobin (mmol/mol)
CharacteristicsNoYes<3131–<3939–<48≥48Missing
N450,97325,54454,085308,97664,16716,50132,788
Self-reported diabetes, %0.50.810.779.85.7
Age (y)56.2 (8.1)59.4 (7.3)56.3 (8.0)52.2 (8.1)59.6 (7.0)59.2 (7.3)56.2 (8.1)
Women, %54.838.854.454.952.237.656.3
Race white, %94.486.696.095.689.585.588.8
Education, ≥college %32.723.638.733.325.423.329.5
Deprivation index (Townsend)−1.3 (3.1)−0.4 (3.4)−1.4 (3.0)−1.4 (3.0)−0.9 (3.2)−0.4 (3.4)−1.0 (3.3)
Smoking previous, %33.842.332.733.936.140.832.7
 Current, %10.611.110.26.915.312.110.9
Pack-years (n)9.615.37.6 (14.6)5.2 (11.5)12.6 (19.8)14.9 (23.3)7.6 (15.4)
Alcohol never, %7.516.25.57.011.616.99.2
 Special occasion11.118.68.510.615.418.813.1
 1–3 drinks/month11.112.29.911.112.112.811.3
 1–2 drinks/week25.923.126.926.124.623.225.1
 ≤3–4 drinks/week23.615.524.126.518.714.521.7
 Daily, %20.614.422.421.417.213.419.3
Diabetes, %0.50.810.179.85.7
Diabetes medication, %57.30.10.35.953.33.4
Diabetes duration (y)8.9 (10.5)7.8 (11.5)6.3 (9.3)6.4 (8.7)10.5 (11.2)8.7 (10.6)
Hypertension, %24.762.017.923.839.057.527.3
Vitamin D (nmol/L)48.9 21.0)43.3 (20.6)49.4 (21.0)49.2 (21.5)46.2 (20.6)41.2 (19.8)48.6 (21.2)
BMI (kg/m2)27.2 (4.6)31.3 (5.9)26.3 (4.1)27.0 (4.5)29.2 (5.4)31.7 (5.9)27.7 (5.1)
PA MET/week lowest quintile, %15.622.216.615.317.223.814.6
Benign breast disease, %1.71.41.61.71.51.31.7
Mammography screening, %78.685.060.079.690.685.778.0
PSA screening, %27.729.324.028.030.726.326.9
Colorectal cancer screening, %29.936.323.130.136.433.629.8
History of hepatitis, %0.40.30.30.40.30.30.4
Family history of breast cancer, %11.010.210.310.710.29.610.3
Age at menarche (y)13.0 (1.6)12.8 (1.7)13.0 (1.6)13.0 (1.6)12.9 (1.6)12.8 (1.7)13.0 (1.6)
Menopause, %69.079.441.270.586.981.868.8
Nulliparous %18.816.123.018.515.817.519.3
Hormone therapy, ever %37.642.424.638.446.141.136.8
Oral contraceptive, ever %81.572.386.981.974.770.879.5
  • Note: Results reported are means (standard deviation), unless otherwise specified.

  • Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; MET, metabolic equivalent; PA, physical activity.