Table 1.

Characteristics of pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls.

Full population0–10-year populationa
(n = 1,591)(n = 956)
CasesControlsCasesControls
Variables(n = 500)(n = 1,091)(n = 304)(n = 652)
Matching factors
 Age, mean (SD), year63.19 (8.30)62.67 (8.31)65.93 (7.59)65.54 (7.55)
 Gender, n (%)
  Male173 (34.60)358 (32.81)82 (26.97)187 (28.68)
  Female327 (65.40)733 (67.19)222 (73.03)465 (71.32)
 Cohort, n (%)
  HPFS83 (16.60)195 (17.87)58 (19.08)145 (22.24)
  NHS147 (29.40)396 (36.30)48 (15.79)140 (21.47)
  PHS90 (18.00)163 (14.94)24 (7.89)42 (6.44)
  WHI180 (36.00)337 (30.89)174 (57.24)325 (49.85)
 Smoking, n (%)
  Current smoker64 (12.90)135 (12.45)37 (12.29)76 (11.76)
  Noncurrent smoker432 (87.10)949 (87.55)264 (87.71)570 (88.24)
 Fasting status at blood collection, n (%)
  Fasted <8 hours142 (28.40)290 (26.58)48 (15.79)118 (18.10)
  Fasted ≥8 hours358 (71.60)801 (73.42)256 (84.21)534 (81.90)
Lifestyle and clinical factors
 BMI, mean (SD), kg/m226.30 (5.03)25.70 (4.33)26.60 (5.50)26.00 (4.63)
 WHR, mean (SD), inch/inch0.85 (0.11)0.84 (0.10)0.84 (0.10)0.83 (0.09)
 Physical activity, mean (SD), MET-hour/week20.10 (32.80)20.40 (25.80)17.70 (24.10)21.50 (29.00)
 Diagnosed diabetes (yes), n (%)29 (5.80)33 (3.02)21 (6.91)24 (3.68)
Circulating biomarkers
 Proinsulin, mean (SD), pmol/L16.10 (18.70)12.90 (19.30)15.70 (19.00)12.90 (19.30)
 Adiponectin (≥4.4 μg/mL), n (%)301 (71.84)743 (81.20)219 (74.74)524 (83.71)
 IL6, mean (SD), pg/mL2.38 (4.20)1.96 (3.36)2.60 (4.72)2.00 (3.03)
 Total BCAAs, mean (SD), μmol/L430.10 (169.89)359.05 (200.66)437.16 (141.29)368.17 (179.37)
Genetic risk factors
 GRS, mean (SD)23.60 (2.75)22.90 (2.64)23.80 (2.75)22.80 (2.68)
 wGRS,b mean (SD)0.21 (1.01)−0.10 (0.98)0.26 (1.00)−0.13 (0.99)
  • Abbreviations: BCAAs, branched-chain amino acids; GRS, genetic risk score summing the number of risk alleles; HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-up Study; NHS, Nurses' Health Study; PHS, Physicans' Health Study; wGRS, weighted genetic risk score; WHI, Women's Health Initiative.

  • a0–10-year population refers to cases (and their matched controls) diagnosed within 10 years of blood draw.

  • bStandardized wGRS with mean = 0 and SD = 1 within each cohort.