Table 3.

Risk of thyroid cancer associated with PE intake for thyroid cancer among papillary carcinomas by tumor size.

Papillary carcinoma
≤1 cm (n = 158)>1 cm (n = 167)
PE intakeControls (n = 433)CasesORa (95% CI)CasesORa (95% CI)
Genistein (μg/day)
 <76088371.00 (—)311.00 (—)
 760–1,26085250.54 (0.24–1.24)300.86 (0.39–1.91)
 1,260–1,86086331.12 (0.55–2.30)331.06 (0.49–2.29)
 1,860–3,11087340.61 (0.28–1.33)340.75 (0.34–1.68)
 >3,11087290.78 (0.36–1.67)391.19 (0.56–2.53)
P for linear trend0.710.15
Daidzein (μg/day)
 <53088321.00 (—)281.00 (—)
 530–91085310.93 (0.42–2.05)311.07 (0.48–2.42)
 910–1,31086331.38 (0.66–2.87)361.39 (0.65–3.00)
 1,310–2,24087350.84 (0.39–1.82)350.87 (0.39–1.96)
 >2,24087270.88 (0.40–1.94)371.34 (0.61–2.92)
P for linear trend0.700.15
Biochanin A (μg/day)
 <30108491.00 (—)551.00 (—)
 30–5081371.04 (0.51–2.12)260.67 (0.32–1.41)
 50–7077250.90 (0.42–1.92)270.84 (0.40–1.76)
 70–12091301.00 (0.49–2.07)310.65 (0.31–1.37)
 >12076170.60 (0.25–1.41)280.68 (0.32–1.49)
P for linear trend0.610.34
Formononetin (μg/day)
 093411.00 (—)411.00 (—)
 0–10153541.11 (0.57–2.16)631.13 (0.59–2.16)
 10–2081220.89 (0.41–1.97)170.74 (0.32–1.72)
 20–3027151.22 (0.44–3.36)140.96 (0.34–2.72)
 >3079260.97 (0.45–2.11)321.05 (0.48–2.28)
P for linear trend0.760.59
Glycitein (μg/day)
 <10094361.00 (—)321.00 (—)
 100–17081311.34 (0.63–2.87)271.10 (0.48–2.50)
 170–26089331.14 (0.54–2.39)361.30 (0.61–2.74)
 260–43086330.92 (0.42–2.00)310.87 (0.38–1.96)
 >43083251.01 (0.46–2.20)411.54 (0.73–3.25)
P for linear trend0.690.15
Total isoflavones (μg/day)
 <1,41088361.00 (—)311.00 (—)
 1,410–2,24085240.69 (0.31–1.55)290.64 (0.28–1.45)
 2,240–3,28089371.25 (0.61–2.57)371.15 (0.54–2.43)
 3,280–5,44084330.73 (0.33–1.61)310.65 (0.29–1.48)
 >5,44087280.86 (0.40–1.87)391.13 (0.53–2.38)
P for linear trend0.700.15
Coumestrol (μg/day)
 <4094241.00 (—)391.00 (—)
 40–8085564.33 (1.86–10.07)472.31 (1.09–4.86)
 80–13088314.38 (1.79–10.71)271.46 (0.64–3.30)
 130–20088232.29 (0.91–5.78)241.32 (0.57–3.08)
 >20078243.11 (1.22–7.91)302.17 (0.94–5.02)
P for linear trend0.340.50
Total PEs (μg/day)
 <1,51087361.00 (—)311.00 (—)
 1,510–2,47086310.88 (0.40–1.92)361.09 (0.50–2.37)
 2,470–3,40086301.32 (0.63–2.76)271.18 (0.54–2.59)
 3,400–5,56087310.63 (0.28–1.42)340.72 (0.32–1.65)
 >5,56087301.00 (0.46–2.15)391.30 (0.61–2.77)
P for linear trend0.710.15
  • aAdjusted for age, gender, race, family history of any cancer, education, BMI, history of benign thyroid disease, and previous alcohol consumption.