Table 4.

Risk of thyroid cancer associated with PE intake among female subjects.

PE intakeControls (n = 306)Cases (n = 317)ORa (95% CI)
Genistein (μg/day)
 <76064711.00 (—)
 760–1,26062550.59 (0.28–1.23)
 1,260–1,86066630.95 (0.48–1.90)
 1,860–3,11055650.88 (0.43–1.81)
 >3,11059630.82 (0.40–1.68)
P for linear trend0.37
Daidzein (μg/day)
 <53065641.00 (—)
 530–91060601.09 (0.53–2.25)
 910–1,31064621.36 (0.67–2.77)
 1,310–2,24058711.16 (0.57–2.35)
 >2,24059601.03 (0.50–2.12)
P for linear trend0.38
Biochanin A (μg/day)
 <30861231.00 (—)
 30–5062590.68 (0.34–1.35)
 50–7059520.71 (0.35–1.43)
 70–12057520.59 (0.29–1.21)
 >12042310.56 (0.27–1.28)
P for linear trend0.82
Formononetin (μg/day)
 061821.00 (—)
 0–101011061.09 (0.57–2.07)
 10–2062430.77 (0.37–1.58)
 20–3020290.62 (0.22–1.75)
 >3062570.82 (0.39–1.72)
P for linear trend0.38
Glycitein (μg/day)
 <10068711.00 (—)
 100–17062600.89 (0.44–1.79)
 170–26066661.17 (0.58–2.35)
 260–43052600.96 (0.46–2.01)
 >43058600.94 (0.46–1.89)
P for linear trend0.42
Total isoflavones (μg/day)
 <1,41065701.00 (—)
 1,410–2,24063530.74 (0.36–1.52)
 2,240–3,28066681.15 (0.57–2.30)
 3,280–5,44054631.01 (0.49–2.09)
 >5,44058630.94 (0.46–1.92)
P for linear trend0.37
Coumestrol (μg/day)
 <4067651.00 (—)
 40–80621042.08 (1.01–4.29)
 80–13060591.56 (0.73–3.35)
 130–20068481.35 (0.63–2.88)
 >20049411.50 (0.64–3.54)
P for linear trend0.94
Total PEs (μg/day)
 <1,51063691.00 (—)
 1,510–2,47065670.94 (0.47–1.91)
 2,470–3,40064541.21 (0.59–2.49)
 3,400–5,56056630.89 (0.42–1.87)
 >5,56058641.04 (0.51–2.12)
P for linear trend0.37
  • aAdjusted for age, race, family history of any cancer, education, BMI, history of benign thyroid disease, age at menarche, use of oral contraceptives, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, estrogen use, and previous alcohol consumption.