Table 2.

Inflammatory cell counts and cytokines in BAL fluids of never-smokers, e-cig users, and smokers.

Never-smoker (n = 40)E-cig user (n = 13)Smoker (n = 16)P value
Median(Range)Median(Range)Median(Range)OverallNever vs. e-cigNever vs. smokersE-cig vs. smokers
BAL cells
Instilled saline (mL)100(100–140)100(60–120)100(100–140)0.60.660.450.35
Recovery (mL)57(40–71)55(28–65)46(31–71)0.02*0.270.004*0.2
Total cell yield (×106)13(8–34)15(5–28)23(11–64)0.01*0.380.004*0.11
Cell concentration (×106/L)238(129–763)306(128–818)434(204–1,689)0.001*0.220.0003*0.05
Macrophages (×106/L)201(97–694)265(111–760)411(161–1,588)0.0002*0.13<0.0001*0.02
(%)89(61–100)89(69–100)95(79–100)0.080.620.03*0.14
Lymphocytes (×106/L)22(0–159)13(0–70)10(0–59)0.070.540.02*0.16
(%)9(0–37)4(0–27)1(0–19)0.003*0.310.0009*0.03
Neutrophils (×106/L)3(0–31)3(0–30)10(0–118)0.03*0.180.010.43
(%)1(0–9)2(0–8)3(0–9)0.160.190.090.73
Eosinophils (×106/L)0(0–8)0(0–17)0(0–13)0.530.40.351
(%)0(0–2)0(0–3)0(0–1)0.640.410.520.79
Never-smoker (n = 42)E-cig user (n = 15)Smoker (n = 16)P value
Mean(SD)Mean(SD)Mean(SD)OverallNever vs. e-cigNever vs. smokersE-cig vs. smokers
Cytokines (pg/mL)
IL1ß0.82(0.39)1.51(1.48)6.08(5.37)<0.0001*0.005*<0.0001*<0.0001*
IL20.38(0.12)0.35(0.09)0.31(0.15)0.01*0.380.005*0.10
IL40.04(0.009)0.04(0.008)0.04(0.01)0.560.280.620.66
IL60.99(0.56)1.56(1.02)4.21(4.93)<0.0001*0.02*<0.0001*0.07
IL828.37(37.2)66.09(115.71)88.52(114.52)0.008*0.100.001*0.30
IL100.09(0.02)0.09(0.02)0.09(0.029)0.270.420.130.53
IL131.80(1.78)1.59(0.96)1.36(0.42)0.740.780.450.65
IL12p700.14(0.04)0.13(0.03)0.12(0.04)0.110.200.050.59
IFNγ0.91(0.27)0.74(0.31)0.65(0.33)0.005*0.02*0.0008*0.54
TNFα0.45(0.17)0.49(0.20)0.52(0.23)0.440.490.220.68
  • Note: Significant P values at the 0.05 level are bolded. Significant P values after correction for multiple testing by adjusted FDR at the 0.1 level are indicated by asterisks. BAL with red blood cell contamination (2 never-smokers and 2 e-cig users) were removed for inflammatory cell counts which altered total cell counts. Median, range, mean, and SD are presented as raw values.