Table 2.

Risk of thyroid cancer associated with PE intake among all cases and by histology subtypes.

ControlsAll cases (n = 387)Papillary (n = 328)Well differentiated (n = 377)
PE intake(n = 433)CasesORa (95% CI)CasesORa (95% CI)CasesORa (95% CI)
Genistein (μg/day)
 <76088811.00 (—)701.00 (—)781.00 (—)
 760–1,26085660.93 (0.51–1.68)550.73 (0.39–1.37)660.95 (0.52–1.72)
 1,260–1,86086741.06 (0.60–1.88)661.09 (0.61–1.96)731.10 (0.62–1.94)
 1,860–3,11087830.97 (0.54–1.71)690.74 (0.40–1.36)800.93 (0.52–1.67)
 >3,11087831.21 (0.69–2.12)680.98 (0.54–1.76)801.18 (0.67–2.07)
P for linear trend0.250.440.31
Daidzein (μg/day)
 <53088731.00 (—)621.00 (—)701.00 (—)
 530–91085721.31 (0.72–2.36)621.08 (0.58–2.01)721.35 (0.74–2.45)
 910–1,31086761.30 (0.73–2.32)691.35 (0.75–2.43)751.34 (0.75–2.40)
 1,310–2,24087861.26 (0.70–2.24)710.98 (0.53–1.81)821.20 (0.67–2.16)
 >2,24087801.35 (0.76–2.39)641.12 (0.61–2.05)781.35 (0.75–2.41)
P for linear trend0.260.450.32
Biochanin A (μg/day)
 <301081361.00 (—)1051.00 (—)1261.00 (—)
 30–5081700.74 (0.43–1.27)630.78 (0.44–1.37)700.81 (0.47–1.39)
 50–7077620.79 (0.45–1.36)530.84 (0.47–1.50)620.86 (0.49–1.49)
 70–12091670.70 (0.41–1.21)610.83 (0.47–1.47)670.76 (0.44–1.32)
 >12076520.60 (0.33–1.08)460.67 (0.36–1.25)520.64 (0.35–1.15)
P for linear trend0.640.970.74
Formononetin (μg/day)
 0931011.00 (—)821.00 (—)961.00 (—)
 0–101531331.05 (0.64–1.71)1181.21 (0.72–2.02)1291.09 (0.66–1.79)
 10–2081500.80 (0.44–1.43)390.87 (0.46–1.63)500.85 (0.47–1.54)
 20–3027330.87 (0.39–1.92)301.11 (0.49–2.51)330.93 (0.42–2.06)
 >3079700.98 (0.55–1.73)591.02 (0.56–1.89)691.00 (0.56–1.79)
P for linear trend0.790.770.85
Glycitein (μg/day)
 <10094821.00 (—)691.00 (—)791.00 (—)
 100–17081691.34 (0.75–2.39)591.22 (0.66–2.25)691.40 (0.78–2.50)
 170–26089781.21 (0.69–2.14)691.20 (0.67–2.16)771.24 (0.70–2.20)
 260–43086761.07 (0.60–1.92)640.93 (0.50–1.72)731.05 (0.58–1.89)
 >43083821.45 (0.83–2.53)671.26 (0.70–2.28)791.41 (0.80–2.48)
P for linear trend0.260.450.33
Total isoflavones (μg/day)
 <1,41088811.00 (—)691.00 (—)781.00 (—)
 1,410–2,24085620.90 (0.50–1.64)530.71 (0.38–1.34)620.92 (0.50–1.68)
 2,240–3,28089821.16 (0.66–2.03)741.21 (0.68–2.14)811.19 (0.68–2.09)
 3,280–5,44084791.00 (0.56–1.80)650.76 (0.41–1.42)760.97 (0.54–1.75)
 >5,44087831.25 (0.72–2.18)671.01 (0.56–1.83)801.21 (0.69–2.13)
P for linear trend0.250.440.31
Coumestrol (μg/day)
 <4094761.00 (—)631.00 (—)711.00 (—)
 40–80851172.48 (1.39–4.43)1032.80 (1.51–5.19)1152.53 (1.41–4.57)
 80–13088742.41 (1.32–4.40)592.50 (1.31–4.78)732.49 (1.35–4.59)
 130–20088541.45 (0.77–2.73)481.60 (0.82–3.14)541.53 (0.81–2.91)
 >20078662.38 (1.26–4.50)552.56 (1.30–5.06)642.43 (1.27–4.65)
P for linear trend0.250.180.26
Total PEs (μg/day)
 <1,51087811.00 (—)691.00 (—)781.00 (—)
 1,510–2,47086771.15 (0.64–2.05)670.97 (0.53–1.77)771.19 (0.66–2.13)
 2,470–3,40086651.18 (0.67–2.10)571.21 (0.67–2.19)641.22 (0.68–2.18)
 3,400–5,56087790.94 (0.52–1.70)660.74 (0.40–1.39)760.92 (0.50–1.66)
 >5,56087851.36 (0.78–2.37)691.13 (0.63–2.04)821.32 (0.75–2.33)
P for linear trend0.250.440.31
  • aAdjusted for age, gender, race, family history of any cancer, education, BMI, history of benign thyroid disease, and previous alcohol consumption.