Table 5.

Risk of thyroid cancer associated with PE intake for thyroid cancer among papillary carcinomas by tumor size among female subjects.

Papillary carcinoma
≤1 cm (n = 142)>1 cm (n = 126)
PE intakeControls (n = 306)CasesORa (95% CI)CasesORa (95% CI)
Genistein (μg/day)
 <76064331.00 (—)281.00 (—)
 760–1,26062240.40 (0.15–1.07)230.34 (0.12–0.98)
 1,260–1,86066321.19 (0.51–2.75)260.54 (0.19–1.51)
 1,860–3,11055270.60 (0.24–1.53)250.26 (0.08–0.85)
 >3,11059260.48 (0.18–1.26)240.53 (0.19–1.49)
P for linear trend0.600.31
Daidzein (μg/day)
 <53065291.00 (—)251.00 (—)
 530–91060290.77 (0.30–1.97)240.85 (0.30–2.42)
 910–1,31064311.80 (0.76–4.27)270.94 (0.33–2.64)
 1,310–2,24058280.67 (0.26–1.74)270.42 (0.13–1.33)
 >2,24059250.63 (0.24–1.69)230.84 (0.29–2.39)
P for linear trend0.600.31
Biochanin A (μg/day)
 <3086481.00 (—)461.00 (—)
 30–5062350.77 (0.33–1.83)200.86 (0.32–2.32)
 50–7059220.79 (0.32–1.95)220.81 (0.29–2.25)
 70–12057270.79 (0.33–1.89)210.41 (0.14–1.25)
 >12042100.38 (0.12–1.18)170.91 (0.30–2.71)
P for linear trend0.590.63
Formononetin (μg/day)
 061401.00 (—)291.00 (—)
 0–10101491.28 (0.57–2.86)450.87 (0.34–2.24)
 10–2062190.77 (0.30–1.93)150.74 (0.25–2.19)
 20–3020130.86 (0.24–3.04)120.57 (0.13–2.47)
 >3062210.59 (0.22–1.59)250.76 (0.26–2.19)
P for linear trend0.260.50
Glycitein (μg/day)
 <10068321.00 (—)281.00 (—)
 100–17062301.05 (0.43–2.55)230.56 (0.20–1.60)
 170–26066311.31 (0.55–3.11)280.79 (0.29–2.16)
 260–43052260.83 (0.32–2.17)230.44 (0.14–1.40)
 >43058230.66 (0.25–1.73)240.68 (0.25–1.88)
P for linear trend0.540.35
Total isoflavones (μg/day)
 <1,41065321.00 (—)281.00 (—)
 1,410–2,24063230.62 (0.24–1.62)230.32 (0.11–0.95)
 2,240–3,28066361.53 (0.66–3.57)270.66 (0.24–1.83)
 3,280–5,44054250.75 (0.29–1.92)240.25 (0.07–0.83)
 >5,44058260.61 (0.23–1.59)240.56 (0.20–1.58)
P for linear trend0.600.31
Coumestrol (μg/day)
 <4067221.00 (—)321.00 (—)
 40–8062552.94 (1.12–7.73)382.16 (0.80–5.86)
 80–13060292.55 (0.91–7.14)180.65 (0.19–2.20)
 130–20068211.57 (0.56–4.38)221.28 (0.43–3.79)
 >20049151.41 (0.44–4.56)161.02 (0.29–3.68)
P for linear trend0.930.41
Total PEs (μg/day)
 <1,51063321.00 (—)271.00 (—)
 1,510–2,47065300.85 (0.34–2.13)300.65 (0.24–1.78)
 2,470–3,40064291.60 (0.66–3.85)190.72 (0.25–2.12)
 3,400–5,56056240.64 (0.24–1.70)260.27 (0.08–0.91)
 >5,56058270.72 (0.28–1.88)240.69 (0.24–1.97)
P for linear trend0.600.31
  • aAdjusted for age, race, family history of any cancer, education, BMI, history of benign thyroid disease, age at menarche, use of oral contraceptives, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, estrogen use, and previous alcohol consumption.