Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients diagnosed with primary NSCLC in Sweden between July 1, 2006 and December 31, 2014 by β-blocker use at cancer diagnosis.

β-Blocker user (N = 5,114)Nonuser (N = 13,315)
nCol %nCol %Pa
Age at diagnosis, years (mean, SD)71.98.367.89.8<0.001b
Male2,75653.96,60249.6<0.001
Attained education<0.001
 Compulsory2,43347.65,55441.7
 Secondary2,01039.35,55841.7
 Post-secondary67113.12,20316.5
Marital status at diagnosis<0.001
 Unmarried4629.01,77013.3
 Married/cohabiting2,58250.56,44548.4
 Divorced/separated1,08721.33,22724.2
 Widowed98319.21,87314.1
TNM stage0.022
 Stage 170713.81,64412.3
 Stage 1 or 2c1793.54713.5
 Stage 23486.88136.1
 Stage 3A4298.41,2279.2
 Stage 3B/C68113.31,73013.0
 Stage 42,44047.76,60249.6
 Recorded incompletelyd1853.64923.7
 Missinge1452.83362.5
Tumor histology0.035
 Adenocarcinoma3,10660.78,32562.5
 Squamous1,34426.33,27424.6
 Adenosquamous651.31561.2
 Large cell1783.55334.0
 Other NSCLC4218.21,0277.7
Comorbidity score (median, IQR)f10(7–14)6(3–10)<0.001b
Comorbidity diagnosed before lung cancer diagnosis
 Coronary artery disease2,04139.91,1828.9<0.001
 Coronary heart failure93418.34793.6<0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease88917.41,1758.8<0.001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease85416.71,75313.2<0.001
 Asthma1993.95634.20.303
 Diabetes1,08521.21,2979.7<0.001
Other medicationsg (ATC code)
 Other antihypertensive medicationsh3,60370.54,01230.1<0.001
 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (M01A)1,22824.03,63627.3<0.001
 Aspirin (B01AC:06,30; N02BA:01,51)2,71953.22,53719.1<0.001
 Statin (C10AA)2,69352.72,56419.3<0.001
  • Note: Patients were considered exposed to β-blocker use if β-blockers collected during 1 year before cancer diagnosis would last until cancer diagnosis date, unexposed otherwise. Tumor staging follows the American Cancer Society classification 6th (until 2010) and 7th (since 2010) editions [stage 1: T1/N0/M0 or T2a/N0/M0; stage 2: T(2b-3)/N0/M0 or T(1-2)/N1/M0; stage 3A: T(1-2)/N2/M0 or T3/N(1-2)/M0 according to the 6th and T(1-3)/N2/M0 or T3/N1/M0 or T4/N(0-1)/M0 according to the 7th editions; stage 3B/C: T(1-4)/N3/M0 or T4/N(0-2)/M0 according to the 6th and T(1-4)/N3/M0 or T4/N2/M0 according to the 7th editions; stage 4: any T, any N, M1]. T stands for the extent (size) of the tumor; N indicates the spread to nearby lymph nodes; M denotes the spread (metastasis) to distant sites. TNM recording in the Cancer Register was introduced in 2004 and has improved over time. Tumor histology was defined using WHO histologic classification of the lung tumors (ICD-O-3 morphologic codes for adenocarcinoma: 8140/3, 8141/3, 8200/3, 8250/3, 8252/3, 8253/3, 8254/3, 8255/3, 8260/3, 8310/3, 8480/3, 8490/3, 8550/3; for squamous cell carcinoma: 8052/3, 8070/3, 8073/3, 8083/3, 8084/3; for adenosquamous carcinoma: 8560/3; for large cell carcinoma: 8012/3; 8013/3, 8014/3, 8082/3, 8123/3; for other or undifferentiated NSCLC: 8022/3, 8031/3, 8032/3, 8033/3, 8046/3, 8972/3,8980/3). Diabetes was defined using ICD codes from the Patient Register and antidiabetic medications (ATC: A10) from the Prescribed Drug Register; other comorbid diagnoses were defined using ICD codes in the Patient Register.

  • Abbreviations: ATC, Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system; IQR, interquartile range.

  • aP values are from a χ2 test.

  • bTwo-sample t test for age at diagnosis and median test for comorbidity score.

  • cStages 1 versus 2 could not be distinguished whenever T2 a/b subtypes were not specified in the Cancer Register.

  • dEither T, N, or M stage was not specified.

  • eT, N, and M stages were missing or recorded as TxNxMx.

  • fNumber of distinct medication classes (medications with the same initial five characters of ATC classification) within 1 year before cancer diagnosis was used to derive a comorbidity score.

  • gMedications (yes/no variables) are dispensed within 1 year before cancer diagnosis and are not mutually exclusive.

  • hInclude angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ATC: C09: A, BA, BB), angiotensin receptor blockers (ATC: C09: C, DA, DB), calcium channel blockers (ATC: C08), and thiazide diuretics (ATC: C03A).