Table 1.

Characteristics of members in each treatment group before propensity score weighting.

TTUnexposedStandardizedTTPDE5iStandardized
Characteristicsn (%)/median (IQR)n (%)/median (IQR)Standardized differencedifference after PSn (%)/median (IQR)n (%)/median (IQR)Standardized differencedifference after PS
Number of men76,159 (100.0)721,326 (100.0)113,041 (100.0)147,620 (100.0)
Age at index date50.0 (15.0)50.0 (15.0)0.0050.00451.0 (14.0)53.0 (13.0)0.0960.005
 30–4422,751 (29.9)214,074 (29.7)0.004−0.01430,354 (26.9)30,753 (20.8)0.1420.055
 45–6446,550 (61.1)442,171 (61.3)−0.0040.01371,752 (63.5)105,509 (71.5)−0.171−0.122
 65+6,858 (9.0)65,081 (9.0)−0.001−0.00110,935 (9.7)11,358 (7.7)0.0700.117
Region
 Midwest20,263 (26.6)191,169 (26.5)0.0020.00229,103 (25.7)20,649 (14.0)0.2980.001
 Northeast6,204 (8.1)59,619 (8.3)−0.004−0.00810,382 (9.2)34,967 (23.7)−0.3990.004
 South31,166 (40.9)292,337 (40.5)0.008−0.00146,577 (41.2)49,856 (33.8)0.154−0.007
 West17,246 (22.6)166,035 (23.0)−0.0090.00524,743 (21.9)35,068 (23.8)−0.0440.008
 Other1,280 (1.7)12,166 (1.7)−0.000−0.0012,236 (2.0)7,080 (4.8)−0.156−0.011
Calendar year of index date
 2007–200921,625 (28.4)215,048 (29.8)−0.031−0.00333,080 (29.3)68,183 (46.2)−0.3550.014
 2010–201233,662 (44.2)318,694 (44.2)0.0000.00249,842 (44.1)54,855 (37.2)0.142−0.005
 2013–201520,872 (27.4)187,584 (26.0)0.0320.00130,119 (26.6)24,582 (16.7)0.244−0.010
Duration of preindex period
 5 or more years18,885 (24.8)209,139 (29.0)−0.0950.04128,870 (25.5)26,077 (17.7)0.192−0.018
 4–4.99 years9,323 (12.2)91,690 (12.7)−0.0140.00214,170 (12.5)15,816 (10.7)0.0570.011
 3–3.99 years11,966 (15.7)115,617 (16.0)−0.009−0.02418,004 (15.9)22,193 (15.0)0.0250.004
 2–2.99 years17,510 (23.0)150,982 (20.9)0.050−0.01825,658 (22.7)37,559 (25.4)−0.0640.004
 1–1.99 years18,475 (24.3)153,898 (21.3)0.070−0.00926,339 (23.3)45,975 (31.1)−0.1770.002
In the year prior to index date
 History of medical diagnoses
 Family history of prostate cancer462 (0.6)4,300 (0.6)0.0010.001797 (0.7)870 (0.6)0.014−0.003
 Fatigue42,639 (56.0)172,488 (23.9)0.6930.66959,380 (52.5)31,501 (21.3)0.6830.517
 Hyperplasia of prostate10,126 (13.3)78,307 (10.9)0.0750.01317,596 (15.6)19,340 (13.1)0.070−0.005
 Hypogonadism32,246 (42.3)32,928 (4.6)0.9960.94849,047 (43.4)8,318 (5.6)0.9770.890
 Inflammatory disease of prostate3,519 (4.6)26,187 (3.6)0.0500.0125,831 (5.2)5,832 (4.0)0.058−0.003
 Obesity15,670 (20.6)88,245 (12.2)0.2270.01423,427 (20.7)16,305 (11.0)0.267−0.007
 Osteoporosis1,770 (2.3)8,892 (1.2)0.0830.0092,553 (2.3)1,434 (1.0)0.102−0.019
 Other diseases of prostate1,528 (2.0)12,162 (1.7)0.0240.0062,505 (2.2)2,765 (1.9)0.024−0.001
 Psychosexual dysfunction5,394 (7.1)13,104 (1.8)0.2570.25810,012 (8.9)12,525 (8.5)0.013−0.003
 Pulmonary hypertension483 (0.6)3,903 (0.5)0.0120.001731 (0.6)598 (0.4)0.0330.017
 Urinary symptoms10,078 (13.2)77,553 (10.8)0.0760.01516,351 (14.5)16,191 (11.0)0.105−0.006
Prescription medications
 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors4,980 (6.5)35,075 (4.9)0.0720.0138,040 (7.1)8,343 (5.7)0.060−0.003
 Antineoplastics and adjunctive therapies610 (0.8)5,663 (0.8)0.0020.002893 (0.8)881 (0.6)0.023−0.003
 Anti-TNFs and adjunctive therapies594 (0.8)5,649 (0.8)−0.0000.002896 (0.8)876 (0.6)0.024−0.001
 Biologics917 (1.2)8,224 (1.1)0.0060.0071,347 (1.2)1,536 (1.0)0.014−0.006
 HIV antiretroviral therapy1,052 (1.4)3,588 (0.5)0.0920.0011,385 (1.2)912 (0.6)0.064−0.013
 Statins27,933 (36.7)217,569 (30.2)0.1380.01643,525 (38.5)51,344 (34.8)0.077−0.000
Comorbidity measures
 Deyo–Charlson comorbidity index0.0 (1.0)0.0 (1.0)0.1300.0090.0 (1.0)0.0 (1.0)0.1820.014
 041,673 (54.7)446,069 (61.8)−0.145−0.06559,775 (52.9)89,517 (60.6)−0.157−0.018
 118,483 (24.3)154,736 (21.5)0.0670.05728,148 (24.9)34,072 (23.1)0.0430.028
 2+16,003 (21.0)120,521 (16.7)0.1100.02025,118 (22.2)24,031 (16.3)0.151−0.008
 Enhanced Elixhauser index2.0 (2.0)1.0 (3.0)0.2500.0552.0 (3.0)1.0 (3.0)0.3070.038
 013,717 (18.0)211,929 (29.4)−0.270−0.19918,994 (16.8)37,788 (25.6)−0.216−0.097
 118,289 (24.0)185,671 (25.7)−0.0400.00726,015 (23.0)40,004 (27.1)−0.094−0.010
 2+44,153 (58.0)323,726 (44.9)0.2640.16668,032 (60.2)69,828 (47.3)0.2610.088
 Enhanced Charlson comorbidity index0.0 (1.0)0.0 (1.0)0.1340.0111.0 (2.0)0.0 (1.0)0.1910.011
 038,953 (51.1)422,280 (58.5)−0.149−0.07155,809 (49.4)84,852 (57.5)−0.163−0.025
 118,733 (24.6)158,990 (22.0)0.0600.05728,292 (25.0)34,732 (23.5)0.0350.030
 2+18,473 (24.3)140,056 (19.4)0.1170.02828,940 (25.6)28,036 (19.0)0.159−0.001
Service utilization
 Had a specialist visit (urologist, oncologist, pathologist)13,989 (18.4)97,261 (13.5)0.1340.05124,401 (21.6)24,080 (16.3)0.1350.040
 Had an annual wellness visit10,083 (13.2)78,909 (10.9)0.0710.04511,466 (10.1)17,807 (12.1)−0.061−0.055
 Had a prostate cancer screen5,625 (7.4)40,197 (5.6)0.0740.0466,660 (5.9)8,663 (5.9)0.001−0.039
 Outpatient visits6.0 (12.0)3.0 (7.0)0.3490.0935.0 (9.0)3.0 (7.0)0.1610.002
 010,661 (14.0)147,900 (20.5)−0.173−0.10518,565 (16.4)31,101 (21.1)−0.119−0.037
 15,610 (7.4)83,078 (11.5)−0.142−0.10710,590 (9.4)15,924 (10.8)−0.047−0.012
 2+59,888 (78.6)490,348 (68.0)0.2430.16183,886 (74.2)100,595 (68.1)0.1340.040
 ER visits0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.1330.0390.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0550.002
 068,116 (89.4)673,332 (93.3)−0.140−0.107104,044 (92.0)137,897 (93.4)−0.053−0.005
 16,654 (8.7)41,657 (5.8)0.1140.0897,729 (6.8)8,529 (5.8)0.0440.006
 2+1,389 (1.8)6,337 (0.9)0.0820.0601,268 (1.1)1,194 (0.8)0.032−0.003
 Inpatient visits0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.1020.0300.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0490.005
 071,734 (94.2)696,286 (96.5)−0.111−0.081108,037 (95.6)142,556 (96.6)−0.051−0.006
 13,554 (4.7)20,812 (2.9)0.0940.0664,156 (3.7)4,329 (2.9)0.0420.004
 2+871 (1.1)4,228 (0.6)0.0600.049848 (0.8)735 (0.5)0.0320.006
 Office visits3.0 (5.0)1.0 (3.0)0.4310.1142.0 (3.0)2.0 (3.0)0.1960.003
 013,959 (18.3)195,665 (27.1)−0.211−0.13324,617 (21.8)40,126 (27.2)−0.126−0.026
 111,643 (15.3)165,353 (22.9)−0.195−0.15422,226 (19.7)32,492 (22.0)−0.058−0.020
 2+50,557 (66.4)360,308 (50.0)0.3380.23966,198 (58.6)75,002 (50.8)0.1560.038
  • Note: Italicized statistics represent the median and IQR for a given characteristic, as indicated by the italicized portion of the column header.

  • Abbreviations: ER, emergency room; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; IQR, interquartile range; PDE5i, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor; PS, propensity score; TT, testosterone therapy.