Table 2.

β-Blocker use at lung cancer diagnosis compared with nonuse in relation to lung cancer–specific mortality in 18,429 patients diagnosed with primary NSCLC in Sweden between July 1, 2006 and December 31, 2014.

β-Blocker useaNo. of eventsHRb (95% CI)HRc (95% CI)
Any β-blocker3,6951.06 (1.02–1.10)1.01 (0.97–1.06)
By adrenoreceptor selectivity
 β1-Receptor selectived3,4021.06 (1.02–1.10)1.01 (0.96–1.05)
 Nonselective (β1/β2-blocking)e2391.05 (0.93–1.20)1.08 (0.95–1.23)
 α1- and β1/β2-Blockingf700.93 (0.74–1.18)0.88 (0.70–1.12)
By solubility
 Lipophilicg2,8401.05 (1.01–1.09)1.02 (0.97–1.07)
 Hydrophilich9141.06 (0.99–1.14)1.00 (0.93–1.07)
By prescribed daily dose
 Low dosei2,0021.06 (1.01–1.11)1.01 (0.95–1.06)
 High dosei1,6611.06 (1.00–1.11)1.01 (0.96–1.07)
  • Note: “No. of events” column shows number of outcome events among β-blocker users. Dose was calculated for 99% of β-blocker users.

  • Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio.

  • aExposed if β-blockers collected during 1 year before cancer diagnosis would last until cancer diagnosis date, unexposed otherwise.

  • bUnadjusted for covariates.

  • cAdjusted for age, sex, stage, histology, year of diagnosis, region of residence, attained education, marital status, comorbidity score (number of distinct ATC classes prescribed during 1 year prior to diagnosis), comorbidity (coronary artery disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, diabetes), other antihypertensive medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, statins.

  • dIncludes metoprolol, atenolol, bisoprolol.

  • eIncludes pindolol, propranolol, sotalol.

  • fIncludes labetalol, carvedilol.

  • gIncludes bisoprolol, carvedilol, labetalol, metoprolol, pindolol, propranolol, metoprolol + felodipine.

  • hIncludes sotalol, atenolol.

  • iCalculated as [tablet strength (mg) multiplied by number of tablets prescribed for daily use] divided with the β-blocker–specific defined daily dose (mg).