Table 1.

Variables collected in the VIRUSCAN Study, Tampa, FL, 2014–2018.

SourceVariable detailsVisit
Study questionnaireB
 DemographicsGender, age, race, ethnicity, education level, marital status, place of birth
 Sun protectionUse of sunscreen, long sleeves, pants, hats, sunglasses, and sun avoidance
 Sun exposuresOccupational sun exposure, history of sunburn, skin reaction to the sun, use of sun lamps or UV nail dryers
 Phenotypic factorsEye color, hair color, untanned skin color, number of moles on arm/body
 Skin cancer screeningNumber of skin exams per year
 Skin conditionsHistory of skin biopsies, eczema, psoriasis, acne, vitiligo, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, warts, other skin conditions, treatment for skin conditions
 Cancer historyMelanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, other skin cancers or other cancers
 Other medical conditionsOrgan transplant, Crohn's disease, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, Sezary syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, xeroderma pigmentosum, asthma/bronchitis/emphysema, gout
 Smoking and alcoholSmoking and drinking habits
 Steroid medicationUse of oral steroids or steroid creams
Clinical findings of total body skin examinationsIdentification of premalignant (actinic keratosis) and malignant lesions [tumor histology, anatomic site (head, neck, torso, arms, legs)]B and FU
Biospecimens
 BloodHPV/HPyV serum antibodiesB
 Eyebrow hairHPV/HPyV viral DNAB and FU
 Skin swabsHPV/HPyV viral DNAB and FU
 Tumor tissueHPV/HPyV viral DNA, solar elastosis, papillomatosis, hypergranulosis, and crateriform architecture (SCC only)B and FU
SpectrophotometerInner upper arm, forearm, and forehead spectrophotometer readingB and FU
Sun exposure questionnaire(subsample n = 159)FU
 Sun exposure (past week)Time outdoors, frequency of sunbathing and spending time in the sun sitting or lying
 Sun protection (past week)Use of sunscreen, clothing, hat and sun avoidance
  • Abbreviations: B, baseline visit; FU, follow-up visit.