Table 2.

Demographic characteristics and skin cancer risk factors and protective behaviors in the VIRUSCAN study, Tampa, FL, 2014–2017 and the southern U.S. population.

VIRUSCAN (N = 1,179)Southern NHIS 2015c (N = 25,149,699)
Demographic and skin cancer risk factorsn (%)n (%)Pd
Age in years
 Mean (SD)69.0 (6.3)70.2 (7.6)<0.001
Gender
 Female627 (53.2)14,073,280 (56.0)0.055
 Male552 (46.8)11,076,419 (44.0)
Race
 White1,132 (96.1)20,421,079 (81.2)<0.001
 Others46 (3.9)4,728,620 (18.8)
Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic1,115 (94.6)22,748,364 (90.5)<0.001
 Hispanic or Latino64 (5.4)2,401,335 (9.5)
Sunburn in the past 12 months
 No1,061 (92.5)20,241,154 (86.1)<0.001
 Yes86 (7.5)3,273,041 (13.9)
History of any cancer
 No565 (49.1)19,269,413 (76.8)<0.001
 Yes585 (50.9)5,807,869 (23.2)
History of skin cancer at study enrollment
 No known skin cancer687 (59.7)5,264,232 (90.7)<0.001
 Any type of skin cancer463 (40.3)536,843 (9.3)
Smoking status
 Never smoked586 (51.0)13,307,427 (53.1)<0.001e
 Former smoker524 (45.6)9,180,053 (36.6)
 Current smoker38 (3.3)2,563,205 (10.2)
Reaction to 1-hour sun exposure
 No change48 (4.2)3,430,354 (17.9)<0.001e
 Tans without sunburn234 (20.4)4,556,119 (23.8)
 Mild sunburn with tana488 (42.6)4,898,328 (25.6)
 Sunburn without blisters315 (27.5)4,198,736 (21.9)
 Blistering sunburn60 (5.2)2,052,810 (10.7)
Ever used a sun lamp or tanning bed
 No905 (78.8)1,943,216 (97.2)<0.001e
 Yes243 (21.2)55,992 (2.8)
Sunscreen useb
 Always109 (10.5)4,295,888 (21.2)<0.001f
 Often265 (25.5)2,155,292 (10.7)
 Sometimes316 (30.4)3,180,984 (15.7)
 Rarely221 (21.3)2,022,689 (10.0)
 Never127 (12.2)8,566,555 (42.4)
Wore a hatb
 Always245 (23.6)3,617,098 (17.9)<0.001f
 Often282 (27.1)1,974,467 (9.8)
 Sometimes255 (24.5)2,965,504 (14.7)
 Rarely141 (13.6)1,949,292 (9.7)
 Never116 (11.2)9,650,956 (47.9)
Stayed in shadeb
 Always109 (10.5)4,303,200 (21.3)<0.001f
 Often464 (44.7)6,050,002 (29.9)
 Sometimes356 (34.3)6,119,738 (30.2)
 Rarely81 (7.8)2,011,929 (9.9)
 Never27 (2.6)1,762,869 (8.7)
Wore protective clothesbWore long sleevesWore long pants
 Always83 (8.0)2,660,356 (13.2)5,605,566 (27.8)
 Often248 (23.8)1,537,657 (7.6)2,545,902 (12.6)
 Sometimes339 (32.6)3,404,590 (16.9)3,666,794 (18.2)
 Rarely262 (25.2)2,506,741 (12.4)1,893,874 (9.4)
 Never109 (10.5)10,027,229 (49.8)6,475,233 (32.1)
  • Abbreviations: NHIS, National Health Interview Survey; VIRUSCAN, Viruses in Skin Cancer.

  • aThe corresponding category for the NHIS data is as follows: burn mildly with some or no tanning.

  • bThe sun exposure time frame differed between the VIRUSCAN questionnaire (if outside in sun for 15 minutes or more) and the NHIS questionnaire (if outside in sun for 1 hour or more) for the sun protection variables.

  • cThe NHIS dataset was restricted to adults ages ≥60 years and weighted using the “sample weight” variable.

  • dP values were calculated using χ2 tests without correction for continuity and confirmed by conditional exact tests.

  • eThe following variables were tested using a pooled in symbol test from 5 imputed datasets, including smoke status, reaction to 1 hour sun exposure, and ever use a sun lamp or tanning bed.

  • fThe following variables were tested using the Cochran–Armitage trend test: sunscreen use, wore a hat, and stayed in shade.