Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of 3,811 patients with PDAC with preexisting diabetes mellitus within the Veterans Health Administration by metformin use (ever use), overall and stratified by race.

All participantsNon-Hispanic white patientsAfrican American patients
Metformin useMetformin useMetformin use
YesNoYesNoYesNo
Characteristicsn = 3,811n = 2,792n = 1,019Pn = 2,268n = 770n = 524n = 249
Age at PDAC diagnosis, years, mean67.867.468.70.000667.969.365.167
Gender, number (%)
 Male3,736 (98.0)2,735 (98)1,001 (98.2)0.592,221 (97.9)756 (98.2)514 (98.1)245 (98.4)
 Female75 (2.0)57 (92.0)18 (1.8)47 (2.1)14 (1.8)10 (1.9)4 (1.6)
Race, number (%)
 Non-Hispanic white3,038 (79.7)2,268 (81.2)770 (75.6)0.0001
 African American773 (20.3)524 (18.8)249 (24.4)
BMI, kg/m2
 Mean30.330.629.20.000130.729.130.129.6
 <1826 (0.7)15 (0.5)11 (1.1)10 (0.4)9 (1.2)5 (0.9)2 (0.8)
 18 ≤ BMI < 25495 (13.0)337 (12.1)158 (15.5)278 (12.3)121 (15.7)59 (11.3)37 (14.9)
 25 ≤ BMI < 301,118 (29.3)823 (29.5)295 (29.0)656 (28.9)232 (30.1)167 (31.9)63 (25.3)
 ≥301,427 (37.4)1,148 (41.1)279 (27.4)955 (42.1)206 (26.8)193 (36.8)73 (29.3)
 Unknown745 (19.6)4,689 (16.8)276 (27.1)369 (16.3)202 (26.2)100 (19.1)74 (29.7)
Smoking status, number (%)0.01
 Never689 (18.1)521 (18.7)168 (16.5)413 (18.2)139 (18.1)108 (20.6)29 (11.7)
 Current1,149 (30.2)867 (31.1)282 (27.7)686 (30.3)202 (26.2)181 (34.5)80 (32.2)
 Past1,539 (40.4)1,107 (39.7)432 (42.4)931 (41.1)336 (43.6)176 (33.6)96 (38.6)
 Unknown434 (11.4)297 (10.6)137 (13.4)238 (10.5)93 (12.1)59 (12.3)44 (17.7)
Stage, number (%)0.0001
 Localized981 (25.7)729 (26.1)252 (24.7)603 (26.6)196 (25.5)126 (24.1)56 (22.5)
 Locally advanced368 (9.7)286 (10.2)82 (8.1)234 (10.3)59 (7.7)52 (9.9)23 (9.2)
 Metastatic1,943 (51)1,438 (51.5)505 (49.6)1,158 (51.1)381 (49.5)280 (53.4)124 (49.8)
 Unknown519 (13.6)339 (12.1)180 (17.7)273 (12.1)134 (17.4)66 (12.6)46 (18.5)
Mortality status, number (%)
 Alive200 (5.3)169 (6.1)31 (3.0)0.0002131 (5.8)24 (3.1)38 (7.3)7 (2.8)
 Dead3,611 (94.7)2,623 (94)988 (97.0)2,137 (94.2)746 (96.9)486 (92.8)242 (97.2)
Median survival, months4.24.53.70.00034.53.84.63.4
Duration of diabetes before PDAC diagnosis (months)53.858.640.40.000150.139.458.640.4
Other diabetic medications
 Alpha glucosidase inhibitors (%)3.43.820.00641.72.92.9
 DPP4 inhibitors (%)0.80.90.60.310.80.71.30.4
 Thiazolidinediones (%)1922.3100.000123.110.918.97.2
 Sulfonylureas (%)42.342.541.70.6742.642.141.840.6
 Meglitinides (%)0.40.40.50.680.40.50.20.4
 Insulin (%)64.160.573.70.000167.969.365.167.0
  • Note: Numbers (%) are presented for categorical variables. Mean values are presented for continuous variables.