Table 4.

Weighted logistic regressiona examining the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking among adult survivors of smoking-related cancersb with history of smoking in the United States: National Health Interview Survey 2014–2017

Association between e-cigarette use and former smoking (outcome reference category: current smokers)
VariableCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)P value for adjusted OR
E-cigarette use
 Never userReferenceReferenceReference
 Former user0.08 (0.06–0.11)0.11 (0.08–0.17)<0.001
 Current user0.10 (0.05–0.18)0.16 (0.09–0.30)<0.001
Age
 18–44 yearsReferenceReferenceReference
 45–64 years2.67 (1.75–4.07)2.25 (1.30–3.88)0.004
 ≥65 years12.03 (7.92–18.27)6.78 (3.96–11.62)<0.001
Gender
 MaleReferenceReferenceReference
 Female0.41 (0.31–0.53)0.70 (0.51–0.95)0.023
Regionc
 WestReferenceReferenceReference
 South0.68 (0.47–0.99)0.69 (0.42–1.15)0.153
 Midwest0.71 (0.48–1.05)0.82 (0.49–1.38)0.458
 Northeast1.00 (0.60–1.65)0.83 (0.46–1.47)0.510
Alcohol use
 Lifetime abstainerReferenceReferenceReference
 Former drinker0.82 (0.49–1.39)0.72 (0.38–1.35)0.301
 Current light/moderate drinker0.90 (0.56–1.44)1.06 (0.60–1.88)0.200
 Current heavy drinker0.48 (0.25–0.93)0.51 (0.24–1.08)0.079
  • aOutcome variable: cigarette smoking (former smoker vs. current smokers). Covariates (in addition to e-cigarette use): age, gender, region, and history of alcohol use.

  • bSmoking-related cancers defined as cancers of the bladder, cervix, colon, esophagus, kidney, larynx (windpipe), liver, lung, mouth/tongue/lip, pancreas, rectum, stomach, and throat (pharynx).

  • cRegions as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.