Table 1.

Distribution of baseline patient characteristics by HPV status with associated multivariable ORs for odds of HPV-positive HNSCC, including oropharynx and non-oropharynx (nasopharynx, hypopharynx, or other pharynx) subsites, among U.S. patients ages 25 and older with M0 disease (N = 4,476)

Odds of HPV-positive HNSCC
CharacteristicaHPV-positive HNSCC (n = 3,083)HPV-negative HNSCC (n = 1,393)AOR (95% CI)P
HNSCC subsite, n (%)
 Nasopharynx68 (2.2)153 (11.0)1.0 (reference)
 Hypopharynx64 (2.1)168 (12.1)
 Other pharynx48 (1.6)58 (4.2)
 Oropharynx2,903 (94.2)1,014 (72.8)4.87 (3.85–6.15)<0.001
Tumor stage, n (%)b
 T1760 (24.7)281 (20.2)1.0 (reference)
 T21,134 (36.8)378 (27.1)1.14 (0.93–1.38)0.21
 T3482 (15.6)282 (20.2)0.79 (0.63–0.98)0.04
 T4374 (12.1)280 (20.1)0.68 (0.54–0.86)0.001
 Unknown T333 (10.8)172 (12.3)0.85 (0.64–1.13)0.26
Nodal stage, n (%)b
 N0389 (12.6)286 (20.5)1.0 (reference)
 N1558 (18.1)280 (20.1)1.34 (1.06–1.68)0.01
 N2a355 (11.5)89 (6.4)2.08 (1.54–2.1)<0.001
 N2b1,086 (35.2)353 (25.3)1.74 (1.40–2.15)<0.001
 N2c421 (13.7)168 (12.1)1.64 (1.27–2.12)<0.001
 N2 NOS49 (1.6)67 (4.8)1.16 (0.73–1.85)0.52
 N3154 (5.0)79 (5.7)1.58 (1.1 to –2.23)0.009
 Unknown N71 (2.3)71 (5.1)2.09 (1.28–3.39)0.003
Initial definitive treatment, n (%)
 None102 (3.3)102 (7.3)N/A (not patient-level characteristic)
 Surgery932 (30.2)283 (20.3)
 Radiotherapy2,812 (91.2)1,189 (85.4)
 Chemotherapy2,260 (73.3)963 (69.1)
Age at diagnosis, median (IQR)59 (53–65)60 (53–68)0.98 (0.97–0.99)<0.001
Race, n (%)
 White2,775 (90.0)1,057 (75.9)1.0 (reference)
 Black154 (5.0)188 (13.5)0.40 (0.31–0.52)<0.001
 Asian/Pacific Islander110 (3.6)131 (9.4)0.47 (0.34–0.64)<0.001
 American Indian/Alaskan Native29 (0.9)11 (0.8)1.77 (0.83–3.78)0.14
 Unknown15 (0.5)6 (0.4)0.95 (0.35–2.59)0.92
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Non-Spanish/Hispanic/Latino2,903 (94.2)1,267 (91.0)1.0 (reference)
 Spanish/Hispanic/Latino180 (5.8)126 (9.1)0.61 (0.47–0.80)<0.001
Sex, n (%)
 Female404 (13.1)323 (23.2)1.0 (reference)
 Male2,679 (86.9)1,070 (76.8)1.63 (1.36–1.96)<0.001
Insurance status, n (%)
 Private or other insurance2,687 (87.2)1,040 (74.7)1.0 (reference)
 Uninsured76 (2.5)66 (4.7)0.56 (0.38–0.82)0.003
 Medicaid284 (9.2)264 (19.0)0.58 (0.47–0.72)<0.001
 Unknown36 (1.2)23 (1.7)0.58 (0.47–0.72)0.13
Smoking propensityc, median (IQR)40.1 (33.5–44.5)40.1 (33.3–44.9)1.01 (0.99–1.03)0.13
Percent high school educationd, median (IQR)87.2 (84.0–90.5)86.9 (80.1–89.4)1.04 (1.02–1.06)<0.001
Household incomed, median (IQR)60,060 (72,800–51,380)56,200 (48,700–67,260)0.99 (0.99–1.00)0.29
  • NOTE: P < 0.001 when comparing across HPV status for all baseline characteristics.

  • Abbreviations: AOR, adjusted OR; N/A, not applicable.

  • aPercent may not add up to 100 due to rounding (percent for initial definitive treatment does not add up to 100 due to receipt of multiple treatments).

  • bWhen stratified by disease site (OPSCC vs. non-OPSCC), smaller T-stage and higher N-stage were associated with HPV-positive disease in OPSCC, but not in non-OPSCC (Psubsite*tumor stage interaction < 0.001; Psubsite*nodal stage interaction = 0.002; Supplementary Table S2).

  • cPercent ever-smoker determined by small area estimates, linked to SEER via estimates developed from the BRFSS and the NHIS.

  • dCounty attribute data, linked to SEER population data by state-county FIPS codes.