Table 5.

Fully adjusted associations of aMEDr (per two-point increment) with bladder cancer risk for various subgroups in the Netherlands Cohort Study

Bladder cancer
AllNoninvasiveInvasive
CasesHR (95% CI)a,bCasesHR (95% CI)a,bCasesHR (95% CI)a,b
Overall1,8841.00 (0.92–1.09)9721.01 (0.92–1.12)9120.99 (0.89–1.09)
Sexc
 Men1,5931.01 (0.92–1.11)8401.04 (0.93–1.16)7530.98 (0.87–1.10)
 Women2910.94 (0.79–1.10)1320.86 (0.69–1.08)1591.00 (0.81–1.25)
Pinteractiond0.4720.0910.622
Cigarette smoking statuse
 Never2710.99 (0.82–1.18)1370.93 (0.73–1.18)1341.05 (0.83–1.33)
 Former8551.09 (0.97–1.22)4571.10 (0.96–1.27)3981.07 (0.92–1.24)
 Current7580.93 (0.80–1.08)3780.98 (0.82–1.16)3800.89 (0.74–1.07)
Pinteractiond0.2060.4570.151
Alcohol consumptionf
 0 g/day2341.00 (0.82–1.22)1110.91 (0.69–1.20)1231.09 (0.86–1.38)
 >0–<15.0 g/day8881.01 (0.90–1.13)4751.03 (0.89–1.18)4130.98 (0.85–1.14)
 ≥15.0 g/day7620.96 (0.84–1.11)3861.00 (0.84–1.18)3760.93 (0.78–1.11)
Pinteractiond0.9880.8070.661
Body mass indexg
 ≥18.5–<25.0 kg/m21,0190.92 (0.82–1.03)5130.91 (0.79–1.05)5060.92 (0.80–1.06)
 ≥25.0 kg/m28571.10 (0.97–1.24)4551.12 (0.97–1.30)4021.07 (0.92–1.26)
Pinteractiond0.0260.0370.128
Highest level of educationh
 Primary school or lower vocational8160.91 (0.80–1.04)4100.94 (0.80–1.11)4060.87 (0.74–1.03)
 Secondary school or medium vocational7281.03 (0.90–1.16)3841.01 (0.87–1.18)3441.04 (0.89–1.21)
 Higher vocational or university3401.20 (0.97–1.48)1781.20 (0.92–1.57)1621.20 (0.92–1.56)
Pinteractiond0.0560.3030.055
Family history of bladder canceri,j
 No1,8621.01 (0.93–1.09)
 Yes220.34 (0.05–2.34)
Pinteractiond0.094
  • aAll HRs were estimated per two-point increment in aMEDr.

  • bAdjusted for age at baseline (years), sex (men, women), cigarette smoking status (never, former, current), cigarette smoking frequency (cigarettes smoked per day, centered), cigarette smoking duration (years, centered), body mass index (kg/m2), alcohol consumption (g/day), daily energy intake (kcal), highest level of education (primary school or lower vocational, secondary school or medium vocational, higher vocational or university), and family history of bladder cancer (no, yes).

  • cNot adjusted for sex.

  • dP-values for interaction were obtained by testing the statistical significance of interaction terms between aMEDr and the stratifying covariates in fully adjusted models.

  • eNot adjusted for cigarette smoking status.

  • fNot adjusted for alcohol consumption.

  • gNot adjusted for body mass index.

  • hNot adjusted for highest level of education.

  • iThe analyses stratified by family history of bladder cancer were only performed for total bladder cancer risk because of the low number of cases with a positive family history.

  • jNot adjusted for family history of bladder cancer.