Table 2.

HRs (95% confidence intervals) for esophageal cancer according to quintiles of acrylamide intake

Quintiles of energy-adjusted acrylamide intake
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
TotalHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)P for trend
Esophageal cancer
 Number of subjects87,62817,52617,52617,52517,52617,525
 Person-years1,354,648268,731271,612272,196271,736270,372
 Number of cases3919782807953
 Age- and area-adjusted modela1.00 (Reference)0.90 (0.67–1.21)0.93 (0.69–1.25)0.97 (0.72–1.31)0.67 (0.48–0.94)0.078
 Multivariable modelb1.00 (Reference)1.03 (0.76–1.38)1.14 (0.84–1.54)1.19 (0.87–1.62)0.84 (0.59–1.19)0.813
 Multivariable model (excluding cases <3 y)b1.00 (Reference)0.98 (0.71–1.36)1.17 (0.84–1.62)1.21 (0.87–1.68)0.87 (0.60–1.26)0.960
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
 Number of cases3057367655842
 Age- and area-adjusted modela1.00 (Reference)0.98 (0.70–1.37)1.01 (0.72–1.41)0.95 (0.67–1.35)0.71 (0.48–1.04)0.126
 Multivariable modelc1.00 (Reference)1.11 (0.79–1.55)1.24 (0.88–1.74)1.18 (0.83–1.69)0.93 (0.62–1.38)0.963
Esophageal adenocarcinoma
 Number of cases2054335
 Age- and area-adjusted modela1.00 (Reference)0.90 (0.24–3.38)0.68 (0.16–2.89)0.70 (0.17–2.99)1.15 (0.32–4.11)0.959
 Multivariable modeld1.00 (Reference)1.03 (0.27–3.90)0.79 (0.18–3.42)0.79 (0.18–3.45)1.25 (0.34–4.59)0.873
  • Abbreviation: 95% CI, 95% confidence intervals.

  • aAge- and area-adjusted model adjusted for age (continuous), sex, and area (10 public health center areas).

  • bMultivariable model additionally adjusted for: smoking status (never, former, current, missing), body mass index (<23.0, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–26.9, ≥27.0 kg/m2, missing), physical activity (continuous), intakes of alcohol (<150, ≧150 g/week), and energy-adjusted consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy (continuous).

  • cMultivariable model additionally adjusted for: smoking status (never, former, current, missing), physical activity (continuous), intakes of alcohol (<150, ≧150 g/week), and energy-adjusted consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy (continuous). BMI was not included since it is not a risk factor for ESCC.

  • dMultivariable model additionally adjusted for: smoking status (never, former, current, missing), body mass index (<23.0, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–26.9, >=27.0 kg/m2, missing), physical activity (continuous), and energy-adjusted consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy (continuous). Alcohol was not included since it is not a risk factor for EAC.