Table 1.

Percentage distribution of demographic characteristics and CPD for PATH Wave 1 adult daily cigarette smokers selected for biomarker analysis (%, 95% confidence interval)

Exclusive cigarette smokers (n = 1,952)Dual cigarette and e-cigarette users (n = 648)Dual cigarette and smokeless tobacco users (n = 110)
Sex
 Male45.3 (41.8–48.7)37.2 (32.6–42)93.4 (87.1–96.7)a
 Female54.7 (51.3–58.2)62.8 (58–67.4)6.6 (3.3–12.9)a
Age group (years)
 18–248.1 (6.4–10.2)6.9 (5.2–9.1)13.0 (7.3–22.3)
 25–3421.0 (18.2–24)23.6 (20.3–27.2)38.9 (30.2–48.3)
 35–5442.3 (38.6–46.2)45.3 (41.3–49.4)37.6 (28.4–47.8)
 55+28.6 (25.1–32.4)24.2 (20.2–28.6)10.5 (4.7–22.0)a
Race/ethnicity
 White, non-Hispanic72.9 (68.9–76.6)83.7 (80.6–86.4)90.5 (82.9–94.9)
 Other or multi-race, non-Hispanic17.8 (14.6–21.4)9.0 (7.1–11.5)4.9 (2.0–11.5)a
 Hispanic9.3 (7.3–11.8)7.1 (5.4–9.5)4.6 (2.0–10.2)a
Education
 Less than high school diploma16.6 (14.0–19.7)11.4 (9.2–14.2)13.6 (8.4–21.3)
 GED11.6 (9.3–14.4)8.7 (6.8–11.1)20.1 (13.7–28.6)
 High school diploma33.3 (29.9–36.9)23.8 (20.2–28.0)33.8 (24.1–45.0)
 Some college/associate's degree31.7 (28.5–35.0)41.2 (36.1–46.5)29.2 (20.5–39.6)
 Completed college or more6.8 (5.6–8.3)14.8 (11.3–19.1)3.3 (1.2–8.6)a
CPD
 0–45.7 (4.1–7.9)2.8 (1.8–4.3)4.7 (2.1–10.4)a
 5–916.4 (13.7–19.7)11.9 (9.3–15.2)7.2 (3.7–13.6)a
 10–1421.9 (18.7–25.5)24.9 (21.4–28.7)25.0 (17.6–34.2)
 15–1915.1 (12.0–18.8)18.4 (15.3–22.0)11.5 (5.9–21.3)a
 20–2428.1 (24.9–31.5)31.6 (27.4–36.1)36.0 (27.7–45.3)
 25–6012.8 (10.5–15.4)10.4 (8.0–13.5)15.5 (10.0–23.5)
Median CPD (25%, 75%)14.5 (9.2–19.6)14.7 (9.6–19.5)18.1 (9.6–19.6)
  • NOTE: Adults included in the analysis provided urine samples with creatinine levels between 10 and 370 mg/dL and reported currently smoking cigarettes every day. Individuals were excluded from the analysis if they currently used e-cigarettes, filtered cigars, cigarillos, traditional cigars, pipes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, snus, or dissolvables every day or some days or had used nicotine replacement therapy products in the past 3 days, with the exception of dual cigarette and e-cigarette users who also currently used e-cigarettes every day or some days and dual cigarette and smokeless tobacco users who also currently used smokeless tobacco or snus every day or some days. All estimates were weighted by the PATH urinary biomarker weights.

  • aRelative SE > 30%.