Table 6.

Fully adjusted associations of the absolute WCRF/AICR score and aMED (per SD-increment) with risks of prostate and bladder cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

Prostate cancerBladder cancer
AllNonadvancedAdvancedAllNoninvasiveInvasive
HRSD (95% CI)a,bHRSD (95% CI)a,bHRSD (95% CI)a,bHRSD (95% CI)a,cHRSD (95% CI)a,cHRSD (95% CI)a,c
PYsubcohort/casesd30,049/3,76330,049/2,27230,049/1,21261,976/1,83661,976/94561,976/891
Excluding alcohol
 WCRF/AICR scoree1.03 (0.97–1.09)1.03 (0.97–1.10)1.05 (0.97–1.13)0.98 (0.92–1.05)0.99 (0.91–1.07)0.98 (0.90–1.06)
 aMEDr1.07 (1.01–1.13)1.09 (1.03–1.17)1.05 (0.98–1.14)0.99 (0.93–1.06)1.00 (0.93–1.09)0.97 (0.90–1.06)
Including alcohol
 WCRF/AICR scoree,f1.04 (0.97–1.10)1.04 (0.98–1.11)1.04 (0.97–1.13)0.95 (0.89–1.02)0.97 (0.90–1.05)0.94 (0.86–1.02)
 aMEDf1.07 (1.01–1.14)1.10 (1.03–1.17)1.07 (0.99–1.15)0.99 (0.93–1.06)1.02 (0.95–1.11)0.96 (0.89–1.04)
  • Abbreviation: PYsubcohort, person-years in the subcohort.

  • aHRs were estimated per SD-increment in the scores.

  • bAdjusted for age at baseline (years), body mass index (kg/m2), alcohol consumption (g/day), daily energy intake (kcal), highest level of education (primary school or lower vocational, secondary school or medium vocational, higher vocational or university), and family history of prostate cancer (no, yes).

  • cAdjusted for age at baseline (years), sex (men, women), cigarette smoking status (never, former, current), cigarette smoking frequency (cigarettes smoked per day, centered), cigarette smoking duration (years, centered), body mass index (kg/m2), alcohol consumption (g/day), daily energy intake (kcal), highest level of education (primary school or lower vocational, secondary school or medium vocational, higher vocational or university), and family history of bladder cancer (no, yes).

  • dA lower number of subjects could be included in these analyses as a result of missing values for salt intake.

  • eScore based on WCRF/AICR dietary recommendations to prevent cancer.

  • fNot adjusted for alcohol consumption.