Table 3.

Adjusted geometric mean ratios by CPD category and tobacco user group

Biomarker CPDExclusive cigarette smokersDual cigarette and e-cigarette usersDual cigarette and smokeless tobacco users
TNE-2
 Never tobacco users111
 0–4 CPD1,287.21 (761.10–2,177.00)2,525.78 (1,541.02–4,139.83)615.19 (74.46–5,082.36)
 5–93,354.27 (2,689.61–4,183.18)5,361.13 (4,229.35–6,795.78)5,556.14 (2,788.91–11,069.07)
 10–146,008.74 (5,003.96–7,215.28)6,430.47 (5,001.24–8,268.14)7,182.14 (5,011.02–10,293.95)
 15–196,700.97 (5,225.61–8,592.86)8,655.06 (6,667.36–11,235.34)9,027.42 (5,915.15–13,777.22)
 20–247,951.44 (6,233.11–10,143.47)10,000.37 (7,619.72–13,124.82)5,618.91 (3,851.28–8,197.84)
 25–609,395.01 (7,173.43–12,304.61)1,3067.02 (9,930.25–17,194.64)7,988.60 (5,011.32–12,734.73)
NNAL
 Never tobacco users111
 0–4 CPD62.36 (41.54–93.60)86.37 (51.12–145.95)173.81 (76.64–394.16)
 5–9144.70 (117.05–178.87)202.88 (158.00–260.51)390.03 (177.54–856.82)
 10–14253.63 (219.38–293.22)259.90 (214.29–315.23)352.47 (257.73–482.04)
 15–19304.62 (246.04–377.14)384.59 (304.26–486.12)574.11 (316.61–1041.06)
 20–24358.20 (296.53–432.68)392.18 (320.29–480.2)364.09 (266.51–497.39)
 25–60460.14 (372.35–568.63)505.72 (401.22–637.43)508.55 (362.38–713.68)
NNN
 Never tobacco users111
 0–4 CPD2.40 (1.86–3.10)2.12 (1.33–3.39)1.87 (0.63–5.56)
 5–94.39 (3.55–5.42)4.30 (3.35–5.53)5.58 (3.68–8.46)
 10–146.76 (6.11–7.47)5.19 (4.35–6.18)8.11 (5.61–11.73)
 15–198.88 (7.33–10.74)7.13 (6.08–8.36)13.73 (6.04–31.22)
 20–248.73 (8.04–9.49)7.29 (6.28–8.46)10.71 (7.40–15.51)
 25–609.60 (8.33–11.07)7.51 (6.10–9.24)9.56 (6.29–14.52)
1-Hydroxypyrene
 Never tobacco users111
 0–4 CPD1.65 (1.42–1.90)1.59 (1.34–1.89)1.19 (0.68–2.09)
 5–91.78 (1.61–1.97)2.35 (1.98–2.79)2.90 (1.72–4.91)
 10–142.35 (2.15–2.58)2.45 (2.18–2.75)3.02 (1.52–5.99)
 15–192.75 (2.42–3.13)2.81 (2.48–3.17)2.31 (1.93–2.78)
 20–242.77 (2.49–3.08)3.04 (2.67–3.47)2.39 (1.78–3.20)
 25–603.36 (2.96–3.82)3.45 (2.87–4.15)3.44 (2.01–5.89)
2-Hydroxyfluorene
 Never tobacco users111
 0–4 CPD4.47 (3.53–5.67)4.35 (3.10–6.11)1.60 (0.96–2.66)
 5–97.01 (6.04–8.13)8.04 (6.59–9.80)7.63 (3.61–16.13)
 10–149.91 (8.83–11.12)9.70 (8.62–10.93)10.55 (6.19–17.99)
 15–1912.26 (11.01–13.66)12.77 (11.19–14.57)9.01 (7.69–10.54)
 20–2413.25 (11.98–14.66)13.75 (11.94–15.83)9.39 (7.06–12.49)
 25–6016.25 (14.44–18.29)16.22 (13.82–19.05)13.10 (8.80–19.50)
HPMA
 Never tobacco users111
 0–4 CPD2.44 (1.98–3.02)2.00 (1.52–2.62)0.93 (0.69–1.25)
 5–92.97 (2.49–3.56)3.57 (3.04–4.19)4.56 (2.80–7.45)
 10–145.19 (4.72–5.71)4.91 (4.37–5.52)4.43 (3.48–5.63)
 15–196.03 (5.45–6.68)6.09 (5.19–7.14)4.83 (4.02–5.81)
 20–246.63 (6.07–7.25)7.69 (6.74–8.76)5.09 (3.82–6.78)
 25–609.31 (8.02–10.81)10.03 (8.38–12.01)6.82 (4.61–10.10)
CYMA
 Never tobacco users111
 0–4 CPD35.36 (22.87–54.69)43.12 (27.07–68.69)4.60 (0.94–22.48)
 5–981.13 (66.90–98.40)89.72 (72.40–111.17)75.58 (33.51–170.45)
 10–14135.85 (117.94–156.48)124.87 (106.26–146.75)113.08 (82.05–155.85)
 15–19163.56 (143.20–186.83)171.03 (142.22–205.67)132.38 (93.93–186.58)
 20–24167.00 (147.39–189.23)184.57 (156.77–217.30)127.72 (85.13–191.61)
 25–60220.77 (186.31–261.60)255.13 (212.77–305.93)172.90 (103.76–288.11)
MHB3
 Never tobacco users111
 0–4 CPD3.14 (2.54–3.89)3.51 (2.68–4.59)1.34 (0.80–2.23)
 5–95.04 (4.37–5.82)5.64 (4.50–7.07)8.44 (5.72–12.44)
 10–147.85 (6.99–8.82)7.38 (6.61–8.25)7.18 (5.43–9.49)
 15–198.50 (7.70–9.38)9.38 (8.18–10.76)7.44 (6.25–8.86)
 20–249.52 (8.79–10.3)11.03 (9.52–12.77)7.47 (5.70–9.80)
 25–6010.93 (9.80–12.2)12.85 (11.25–14.68)8.33 (5.44–12.74)
Cadmium
 Never tobacco users111
 0–4 CPD1.52 (1.29–1.78)1.24 (0.93–1.66)1.31 (0.74–2.33)
 5–91.51 (1.35–1.70)1.61 (1.38–1.88)1.56 (0.88–2.77)
 10–141.97 (1.78–2.18)1.84 (1.59–2.12)1.71 (1.29–2.26)
 15–192.23 (1.95–2.56)2.25 (1.79–2.83)2.30 (1.40–3.78)
 20–242.73 (2.42–3.07)2.56 (2.32–2.83)1.92 (1.48–2.48)
 25–603.49 (3.05–4.00)3.28 (2.60–4.15)3.48 (2.14–5.66)
Lead
 Never tobacco users111
 0–4 CPD1.38 (1.13–1.69)1.47 (1.21–1.80)1.42 (0.77–2.61)
 5–91.22 (1.05–1.42)1.39 (1.15–1.69)1.09 (0.64–1.85)
 10–141.29 (1.18–1.43)1.34 (1.19–1.52)1.45 (1.07–1.96)
 15–191.48 (1.34–1.63)1.45 (1.27–1.67)1.98 (1.15–3.42)
 20–241.45 (1.33–1.58)1.49 (1.34–1.64)1.73 (1.35–2.22)
 25–601.54 (1.38–1.73)1.53 (1.27–1.86)1.91 (1.02–3.56)
  • NOTE: Geometric mean ratios were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment.