Table 3.

Results, stratified by race/ethnicitya

NHBNHW
CohortCaseMultivariable adjustedbCohortCaseMultivariable adjustedb
n (%)n (%)HR (95% CI)n (%)n (%)HR (95% CI)Pinteraction
Overall cancerc
 Asthma0.74
  No37,172 (86%)2,170 (87%)1.0015,632 (83%)841 (85%)1.00
  Yes5,809 (14%)335 (13%)1.03 (0.92–1.16)3,113 (17%)152 (15%)1.00 (0.84–1.19)
 Allergies0.77
  No34,007 (79%)2,012 (80%)1.0012,813 (68%)712 (72%)1.00
  Yes8,978 (21%)492 (20%)0.97 (0.88–1.08)5,937 (32%)281 (28%)0.95 (0.83–1.09)
Lung cancerd
 Asthma0.85
  No33,548 (87%)318 (85%)1.0014,290 (83%)146 (80%)1.00
  Yes5,180 (13%)58 (15%)1.25 (0.94–1.66)2,825 (17%)36 (20%)1.20 (0.82–1.74)
 Allergies0.10
  No30,636 (79%)309 (82%)1.0011,653 (68%)145 (80%)1.00
  Yes8,094 (21%)66 (18%)0.95 (0.73–1.25)5,462 (32%)37 (20%)0.65 (0.45–0.94)
Breast cancere,f
 Asthma0.56
  No19,931 (84%)303 (86%)1.008,739 (81%)123 (86%)1.00
  Yes3,793 (16%)48 (14%)0.85 (0.63–1.16)2,084 (19%)20 (14%)0.72 (0.45–1.16)
 Allergies0.19
  No17,453 (74%)260 (74%)1.006,759 (62%)81 (57%)1.00
  Yes6,275 (26%)91 (26%)0.93 (0.73–1.18)4,070 (38%)62 (43%)1.22 (0.88–1.71)
Prostate cancerg,h
 Asthma0.99
  No14,173 (90%)329 (90%)1.005,655 (88%)78 (90%)1.00
  Yes1,499 (10%)36 (10%)1.10 (0.78–1.55)765 (12%)9 (10%)1.10 (0.55–2.19)
 Allergies0.51
  No13,633 (87%)318 (87%)1.004,963 (77%)66 (76%)1.00
  Yes2,039 (13%)47 (13%)0.87 (0.64–1.18)1,456 (23%)21 (24%)1.05 (0.64–1.72)
  • Abbreviations: HR (hazard ratio); NHB (non-Hispanic black); NHW (non-Hispanic white); 95% CI (95% confidence interval).

  • aAdjusted for age (time axis of analysis), sex, and race/ethnicity (NHB, NHW, and other).

  • bAdjustment variables depend on the outcome of interest.

  • cAnalyses of overall cancer adjusted for factors listed in footnote “a” above, as well as family income (<15,000, 15,000- <25,000, 25,000–<50,000, or 50,000+), insurance status (uninsured vs. insured), time since last seen a doctor (<3 months, 3–<12 months, or 12 months+), BMI (<25, 25–<27.5, 27.5–<30, or 30+), history of smoking (never smoker, tertiles of pack-years smoked among former smokers, and tertiles of pack-years smoked among current smokers), and family history of any cancer (none or any).

  • dAnalyses of lung cancer adjusted for factors listed in footnote “c” above, except for family history of any cancer. Instead, we adjusted for family history of lung cancer (none or any), as well as history of COPD.

  • eAnalyses of breast cancer limited to women.

  • fAnalyses of breast cancer adjusted for factors listed in footnote “c” above, except for sex and family history of any cancer. Instead, we adjusted for family history of breast cancer (none or any), as well as history of mammogram (never, not recent: >2 years, or recent: ≤2 years ago).

  • gAnalyses of prostate cancer limited to men.

  • hAnalyses of prostate cancer adjusted for factors listed in footnote “c” above, except for sex and family history of any cancer. Instead, we adjusted for family history of prostate cancer (none or any), as well as prostate-specific antigen screening (never, not recent: >2 years ago, or recent: ≤2 years ago), and history of digital rectal exam (never, not recent: >2 years ago, or recent: ≤2 years ago).