Table 3.

Direct and indirect effects (mediated by sP-Selectin and fibrinogen) of smoking on lung cancer riska

Direct effect HR (95% CI)PIndirect effect HR (95% CI)PProportion mediated
sP-Selectin
 Model 14.87 (3.48–6.82)<0.0011.16 (1.07–1.25)<0.00117%
 Model 24.59 (3.31–6.35)<0.0011.14 (1.06–1.23)<0.00115%
Fibrinogen
 Model 14.96 (2.04–12.06)<0.0011.11 (1.05–1.18)<0.00113%
 Model 24.41 (2.20–8.83)<0.0011.08 (1.02–1.14)0.0039%
  • NOTE: Mediated proportions calculated according to the Vanderweele method (35). Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, lifetime alcohol intake (g/d), current aspirin use (yes/no), CRP (mg/dl), physical activity (Cambridge Index), BMI (kg/m2), height (cm) and education level (primary school, secondary school and university degree). Model 2: additionally adjusted for sP-Selectin or fibrinogen, respectively.

  • aSmoking modeled as continuous trend variable based on five scores: Never smokers (0), long-term quitters ≥ 10 years (1), short-term quitters <10 years (2), light smokers < 15 cigarettes per day (3), and heavy smokers ≥ 15 cigarettes per day (4).