Table 2.

Association between education and the RII with pancreatic cancer in the EPIC Cohorts Study

Model 1Model 2
Person-yearsCasesHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
AllUniversity1,570,4732331 (ref.)1 (ref.)
Secondary or vocational2,842,4624791.08 (0.92–1.28)1.05 (0.89–1.23)
Primary or less1,988,4785111.20 (1.01–1.42)1.12 (0.94–1.33)
Plinear trend0.0360.201
RII6,401,4131,2231.27 (1.02–1.59)1.17 (0.93–1.46)
Plinear trend0.0300.173
Pnonlinear trend0.1130.464
WomenUniversity1,050,6151041 (ref.)1 (ref.)
Secondary or vocational2,091,4552911.06 (0.84–1.35)1.05 (0.83–1.34)
Primary or less1,332,5212901.27 (0.98–1.64)1.18 (0.91–1.54)
Plinear trend0.0460.164
RII4,474,5926851.42 (1.05–1.92)1.29 (0.95–1.75)
Plinear trend0.0220.103
Pnonlinear trend0.1130.331
MenUniversity519,8581291 (ref.)1 (ref.)
Secondary or vocational751,0071881.12 (0.89–1.41)1.04 (0.83–1.31)
Primary or less655,9572211.13 (0.89–1.44)1.03 (0.81–1.31)
Plinear trend0.3300.735
RII1,926,8215381.12 (0.81–1.54)1.00 (0.72–1.38)
Plinear trend0.4880.981
Pnonlinear trend0.7290.923
Psex interaction0.3100.249
  • NOTE: Model 1, adjusted by sex and stratified by center and baseline age categories; model 2, as model 1, plus further adjustment by smoking intensity, alcohol consumption, BMI, prevalent diabetes, and physical activity. The RII expresses the ratio of the expected pancreatic cancer risk between the most educated (reference) and the least educated participants in the cohorts.