Table 3.

Urinary 3-HPMA levels in healthy subjects with CS or BQ chewing histories and patients with OSCC

Creatinine3-HPMA3-HPMA/Cre
Mean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SD
(mg/dL)(μmol/L)(μmole/g)
CS (n = 111)71.9 ± 65.74.3 ± 6.55.8 ± 4.7
CS+BQ (n = 107)167.4 ± 117.916.1 ± 23.28.9 ± 9.3
BQ (n = 12)196.3 ± 154.89.0 ± 15.73.6 ± 6.1
Oral cancer (OSCC; n = 97)96.8 ± 67.80.6 ± 0.70.7 ± 0.7