Table 3.

Adjusted geometric mean ratiosa and 95% CI for biomarkers of exposure by tobacco use status versus no tobacco use, PATH Study (2013–2014)

Exclusive current cigar smokerExclusive current cigarette smokerDual cigar/cigarette smokersNever tobacco use (reference)
Every daySome dayEvery daySome dayEvery daySome day
Urinary total nicotine equivalents -22,185.28 (1,370.06–3,485.56)26.32 (15.09–45.89)5,461.9 (4,485.45–6,650.93)373.68 (251.79–554.57)4,308.42 (3,485.09–5,326.24)251.52 (132.37–477.92)1
Urinary NNAL238.4 (153.32–370.71)9.4 (6.68–13.24)251.15 (214.38–294.21)31.68 (25.99–38.63)259.52 (221.65–303.87)34.65 (23.49–51.11)1
Urinary NNN4.82 (3.12–7.45)1.13 (1.01–1.26)6.68 (6.23–7.16)1.95 (1.78–2.14)6.36 (5.63–7.19)1.76 (1.53–2.03)1
Urinary cadmium1.81 (1.5–2.18)0.95 (0.85–1.06)2.24 (2.07–2.41)1.25 (1.09–1.44)2.05 (1.73–2.42)1.28 (1.12–1.46)1
Urinary lead1.52 (1.29–1.8)1.22 (1.09–1.37)1.41 (1.32–1.51)1.29 (1.2–1.38)1.49 (1.28–1.74)1.33 (1.18–1.51)1
Urinary 3-Hydroxyfluorene9.77 (6.9–13.82)1.55 (1.29–1.87)10.43 (9.66–11.27)2.97 (2.66–3.31)11 (10.07–12.02)2.99 (2.5–3.58)1
Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene2.61 (1.94–3.5)1.25 (1.08–1.44)2.48 (2.31–2.65)1.43 (1.32–1.54)2.87 (2.63–3.13)1.59 (1.42–1.77)1
Urinary AAMA2.87 (2.23–3.7)1.34 (1.2–1.5)3.28 (3.08–3.49)1.82 (1.63–2.03)3.74 (3.32–4.22)1.95 (1.7–2.23)1
Urinary CYMA123.72 (93.13–164.36)4.98 (3.87–6.41)125.98 (113.91–139.34)17.35 (13.89–21.69)138.75 (120.46–159.81)18.84 (13.36–26.57)1
Urinary 2HPMA2.38 (1.74–3.25)0.93 (0.78–1.11)2.57 (2.34–2.84)1.4 (1.24–1.58)2.96 (2.48–3.53)1.48 (1.27–1.71)1
Urinary 3HPMA3.01 (2.24–4.05)1.13 (0.99–1.29)5.19 (4.82–5.58)1.82 (1.6–2.07)4.95 (4.51–5.44)1.9 (1.62–2.22)1
Urinary HPMM4.03 (2.92–5.58)1.15 (1.01–1.3)6.39 (5.92–6.9)2.05 (1.84–2.28)6.35 (5.75–7.02)2.05 (1.75–2.4)1
Urinary IPM38.35 (5.15–13.53)1.48 (1.26–1.72)13.48 (12.26–14.81)2.82 (2.39–3.33)13.54 (11.87–15.44)3.33 (2.66–4.17)1
Urinary MADA2.24 (1.85–2.7)1.01 (0.92–1.12)2.38 (2.24–2.53)1.46 (1.36–1.56)2.62 (2.38–2.89)1.45 (1.32–1.59)1
Urinary MHB34.92 (3.52–6.88)1.24 (1.11–1.4)7.43 (6.93–7.96)2.32 (1.99–2.7)7.13 (6.43–7.9)2.31 (1.95–2.73)1
Urinary PHGA2 (1.71–2.35)1.01 (0.92–1.11)1.94 (1.84–2.06)1.3 (1.22–1.39)2.17 (2.02–2.34)1.35 (1.23–1.48)1
  • Abbreviations: TNE -2, Total Nicotine Equivalents-2; NNAL, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanonol; NNN, N'-nitrosonornicotine; AAMA, N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-l-cysteine; CYMA, N-Acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-l-cysteine; 2HPMA, 2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid; 3HPMA, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid; HPMMA, 3-hydroxy-1-methyl propylmercapturic acid; IPMA3, N-Acetyl-S-(4-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-l-Cysteine; MADA, Mandelic acid; MHBMA3, N-Acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-buten-1-yl)-l-cysteine; PGA, phenylglyoxylic acid.

  • aGeometric mean ratios are adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and creatinine.