Table 2.

Performance of GALAD within subgroups of Mayo Clinic cohort

Sensitivity (95% CI)Specificity (95% CI)AUC (95% CI)a
SubgroupsGALAD cutoffGALADUltrasoundGALADUltrasoundGALADUltrasoundPb
Overall−0.760.91 (0.84–0.96)0.89 (0.81–0.95)0.85 (0.79–0.90)0.79 (0.72–0.84)0.95 (0.93–0.97)0.82 (0.77–0.87)<0.01
Gender
 Male0.270.84 (0.74–0.91)0.87 (0.77–0.94)0.92 (0.84–0.96)0.80 (0.71–0.88)0.95 (0.92–0.97)0.83 (0.77–0.89)<0.001
 Female−1.040.88 (0.69–0.97)0.95 (0.76–1.00)0.95 (0.88–0.99)0.77 (0.66–0.85)0.94 (0.88–1.00)0.80 (0.71–0.88)0.001
Age
 Age <60−1.410.97 (0.84–1.00)0.89 (0.71–0.98)0.89 (0.81–0.95)0.78 (0.67–0.86)0.98 (0.96–1.00)0.80 (0.72–0.87)<0.001
 Age ≥ 600.340.82 (0.72–0.90)0.89 (0.78–0.95)0.91 (0.83–0.96)0.80 (0.70–0.88)0.93 (0.89–0.97)0.84 (0.77–0.89)0.006
AFP
 AFP <20−1.180.89 (0.77–0.96)0.87 (0.72–0.96)0.81 (0.74–0.86)0.79 (0.72–0.85)0.90 (0.86–0.95)0.80 (0.74–0.85)<0.01
 AFP ≥ 203.910.69 (0.56–0.80)0.90 (0.79–0.97)1.00 (0.28–1.00)0.75 (0.19–0.99)0.87 (0.72–1.00)0.89 (0.78–0.96)0.37
Etiology
 HCV−0.530.94 (0.83–0.99)0.92 (0.80–0.98)0.85 (0.68–0.95)0.74 (0.55–0.88)0.95 (0.90–1.00)0.85 (0.74–0.92)0.02
 HBV−1.681.00 (0.62–1.00)1.00 (0.47–1.00)1.00 (0.82–1.00)0.85 (0.66–0.96)1.00 (1.00–1.00)0.88 (0.73–0.97)0.01
 Alcohol−1.181.00 (0.68–1.00)0.77 (0.46–0.95)0.73 (0.56–0.86)0.70 (0.53–0.84)0.93 (0.86–0.99)0.72 (0.58–0.84)<0.01
 NASH−0.850.87 (0.69–0.96)0.85 (0.66–0.96)0.84 (0.70–0.93)0.83 (0.70–0.93)0.89 (0.81–0.97)0.84 (0.74–0.91)0.18
 Others0.271.00 (0.52–1.00)1.00 (0.19–1.00)1.00 (0.85–1.00)0.80 (0.61–0.92)1.00 (1.00–1.00)0.82 (0.65–0.93)<0.01
BMI
 ≤300.340.867 (0.75–0.94)0.91 (0.79–0.98)0.95 (0.88–0.98)0.75 (0.65–0.83)0.97 (0.95–0.99)0.80 (0.72–0.86)<0.01
 30–350.110.88 (0.70–0.98)0.89 (0.67–0.99)0.95 (0.83–0.99)0.75 (0.59–0.87)0.97 (0.93–1.00)0.80 (0.67–0.89)<0.01
 >35−1.420.89 (0.71–0.98)0.85 (0.65–0.96)0.80 (0.63–0.92)0.88 (0.73–0.97)0.87 (0.78–0.97)0.87 (0.75–0.94)0.50
Ascites
 0 (No ascites)−0.180.95 (0.87–0.99)0.91 (0.81–0.96)0.91 (0.84–0.96)0.78 (0.69–0.85)0.97 (0.95–0.99)0.83 (0.76–0.88)<0.01
 1 (Controlled ascites)−0.270.95 (0.75–0.97)0.85 (0.62–0.97)0.85 (0.72–0.94)0.81 (0.67–0.91)0.96 (0.92–1.00)0.82 (0.71–0.90)<0.01
 2 (Refractory ascites)−0.201.00 (0.42–1.00)0.83 (0.36–1.00)1.00 (0.70–1.00)0.73 (0.45–0.92)1.00 (1.00–1.00)0.76 (0.53–0.92)0.01
Child–Pugh
 A−0.850.92 (0.84–0.97)0.94 (0.85–0.98)0.84 (0.76–0.90)0.77 (0.67–0.84)0.94 (0.91–0.98)0.83 (0.76–0.88)<0.01
 B-C0.420.83 (0.64–0.94)0.74 (0.52–0.90)0.96 (0.86–1.00)0.77 (0.62–0.88)0.95 (0.91–0.99)0.76 (0.64–0.85)<0.01
ALT
 <40−1.010.95 (0.82–0.99)0.84 (0.66–0.95)0.86 (0.78–0.91)0.84 (0.76–0.90)0.95 (0.92–0.99)0.84 (0.77–0.89)<0.01
 ≥400.380.84 (0.73–0.91)0.92 (0.81–0.97)0.95 (0.86–0.99)0.67 (0.53–0.79)0.94 (0.91–0.98)0.80 (0.71–0.87)<0.01
Tumor stage
 Very early (BCLC 0)−1.701.00 (0.70–1.00)0.67 (0.35–0.90)0.72 (0.64–0.78)0.79 (0.72–0.84)0.91 (0.85–0.96)0.78 (0.71–0.84)<0.01
 Early (BCLC 0-A)−1.180.92 (0.82–0.97)0.92 (0.81–0.98)0.79 (0.73–0.85)0.79 (0.72–0.84)0.92 (0.88–0.96)0.82 (0.76–0.87)<0.01
 Nonearly (BCLC B-D)0.270.92 (0.81–0.98)0.85 (0.69–0.94)0.94 (0.90–0.97)0.79 (0.72–0.85)0.99 (0.97–1.00)0.80 (0.74–0.85)<0.01
  • aFor the calculation of AUC, the continuous GALAD score is used, whereas for sensitivity and specificity, we used the GALAD cutoff.

  • bP value looking at difference in AUC between GALAD and ultrasound.