Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of Mayo Clinic cohort

HCC (N = 111)Control (N = 180)P value
Age, mean (SD)63.9 (8.6)57.1 (11.6)<0.01
 Age <6032 (28.8%)91 (50.6%)
 Age ≥6079 (71.2%)89 (49.4%)
Gender<0.01
 Female25 (22.5%)84 (46.7%)
 Male86 (77.5%)96 (53.3%)
Race0.39
 White86 (77.5%)148 (82.2%)
 Asian8 (7.2%)14 (7.8%)
 Non-White/Asian17 (15.3%)18 (10.0%)
Child–Pugh0.56
 Missing419
 A78 (72.9%)112 (69.6%)
 B-C29 (27.1%)49 (30.4%)
Etiology<0.01
 HCV48 (43.2%)33 (18.3%)
 HBV11 (9.9%)27 (15.0%)
 Alcohol14 (12.6%)37 (20.6%)
 NASH30 (27.0%)49 (27.2%)
 Others8 (7.2%)34 (18.9%)
Cirrhosis109 (98.2%)154 (85.6%)<0.01
BMI0.72
 ≤3058 (52.3%)96 (55.8%)
 30–3526 (23.4%)41 (23.8%)
 >3527 (24.3%)35 (20.3%)
Platelet count, median (IQR)99.0 (70.0–195.0)130.0 (93.0–180.0)0.023
ALT, median (IQR)51.0 (36.5–85.0)32.0 (22.0–49.0)<0.01
 ALT <4037 (33.3%)119 (67.2%)
 ALT ≥4074 (66.7%)58 (32.8%)
FIB-4, median (IQR)7.0 (4.2–10.0)3.5 (1.9–6.1)<0.01
AFP, median (IQR)39.8 (7.4–462.0)3.3 (2.2–5.5)<0.01
 AFP <2047 (42.3%)176 (97.8%)
 AFP ≥2064 (57.7%)4 (2.2%)
DCP, median (IQR)9.5(2.2–151.0)0.6 (0.3–2.0)<0.01
L3, median (IQR)12.8 (6.9–32.3)1.0 (1.0–9.2)<0.01
Ascites0.77
 0 (no ascites)76 (68.5%)117 (65.4%)
 1 (controlled ascites)28 (25.2%)47 (26.3%)
 2 (refractory ascites)7 (6.3%)15 (8.4%)
GALAD_Z, mean (SD)3.8 (4.4)−2.6 (1.9)<0.01
Ultrasound lesion<0.01
 Missing217
 Negative10 (11.1%)136 (78.6%)
 Positive80 (88.9%)37 (21.4%)
Tumor stageNA
 Very early (BCLC 0)16 (14.5%)
 Early (BCLC A)44 (39.6%)
 Nonearly (BCLC B-D)51 (45.9%)