Table 3.

Associationsa of the mineral scoreb with risk for incident colorectal cancer among older women (n = 35,221); Iowa Women's Health Study, 1986–2012

Age- and total energy–adjusted associationsMultivariable-adjusted associationsc
Cases, NHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Mineral score continuous1,7311.00 (0.96–1.02)0.98 (0.97–1.01)
Mineral score quintiles (median)
1 (12)3051.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
2 (15)3500.97 (0.85–1.10)0.91 (0.88–1.08)
3 (17)3580.85 (0.70–0.96)0.85 (0.75–0.95)
4 (18)3380.87 (0.75–1.04)0.86 (0.75–0.97)
5 (21)3800.77 (0.70–0.95)0.75 (0.71–0.95)
  • Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HR, hazards ratio; ref, referent.

  • aFrom Cox proportional hazards regression.

  • bMineral score calculated from food and supplemental intakes of calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, selenium, potassium, iodine, iron, copper, phosphorus, and sodium as described in the text.

  • cAdjusted for age, height, BMI, waist–hip ratio, smoking, physical activity, hormone replacement therapy use, education, family history, diabetes, total energy intake, total fat intake, dietary fiber intake, total fruits and vegetables intake, total red and processed meats intake, alcohol, and dietary OBS (see text).