Table 1.

The association between demographic, lifestyle factors, and clinical characteristics and the OS of HNC patients

N = 740
n (%)HR (95% CI)aP
Age at diagnosis, mean (SE)55.19 (0.39)1.00 (0.98–1.01)0.68
Sex
 Male693 (93.65)Reference
 Female47 (6.35)0.64 (0.32–1.31)0.22
Education
 ≦Elementary school204 (27.57)Reference
 Junior high217 (29.32)0.76 (0.53–1.11)0.15
 High school/technical school242 (32.70)0.81 (0.56–1.16)0.24
 Some college or more77 (10.41)0.68 (0.39–1.19)0.18
Cigarette smoking
 Never108 (14.61)Reference
 Former139 (18.81)1.17 (0.67–2.03)0.58
 Current492 (66.58)1.46 (0.92–2.32)0.10
Betel quid chewing
 Never222 (30.00)Reference
 Former280 (37.84)1.00 (0.70–1.43)1.00
 Current238 (32.16)1.11 (0.77–1.59)0.57
Stage
 1, 2300 (40.54)Reference
 3, 4405 (54.73)4.35 (2.95–6.41)<0.0001
 Unknown35 (4.73)2.57 (1.18–5.58)0.02
Grade
 Low229 (30.95)Reference
 Moderate or high429 (57.97)1.73 (1.20–2.50)0.004
 Unknown82 (11.08)3.23 (2.05–5.09)<0.0001
Surgery
 No232 (31.35)Reference
 Yes495 (66.89)0.35 (0.26–0.46)<0.0001
 Unknown13 (1.76)0.38 (0.09–1.54)0.18
Radiotherapy
 No352 (47.57)Reference
 Yes359 (48.51)2.88 (2.08–3.97)<0.0001
 Unknown29 (3.92)1.47 (0.63–3.43)0.37
Chemotherapy
 No412 (55.68)Reference
 Yes304 (41.08)3.53 (2.58–4.83)<0.0001
 Unknown24 (3.24)2.04 (0.88–4.72)0.10
Treatment combination
 Radiotherapy or chemotherapy or both189 (25.54)Reference
 No treatment25 (3.38)0.72 (0.35–1.48)0.37
 Surgery only310 (41.89)0.19 (0.13–0.29)<0.0001
 Surgery + radiotherapy or chemotherapy46 (6.22)0.35 (0.18–0.70)0.003
 Surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy138 (18.65)0.64 (0.44–0.93)0.02
 Treatment combination uncertainb32 (4.32)0.41 (0.19–0.88)0.02
  • Abbreviation: N, number.

  • aHR and 95% CI were calculated using Cox proportional hazards model.

  • bInformation was unknown for one or more of the treatment modalities.