Table 1.

Characteristics of studies of HCAs, mutagenicity, and adenoma

Author, yearName/CountryStudy designParticipants (cases) and settingAge range (mean)Year diet assessedFollow-up, yearsHCAs and total mutagenicity analysedAdenoma outcomeStatistical adjustments
Wu et al., 2006HPFS (US)Cohort14,03240–751996 and 2002PhIPDistal colon adenomaAge, family history of colorectal cancer, reason for endoscopy, negative endoscopy before 1996, physical activity, smoking status, race, aspirin use, total energy intake, and calcium and folate intake
Men onlyDiMelQx
Meat-derived mutagenicity
Rohrmann et al., 2009EPIC (Europe)Cohort3,69935–651994–19985.4 ± 2.4 casesDiMelQxCRAEnergy intake without energy from alcohol, ethanol intake, milk and milk product consumption, fiber consumption, BMI, family history of colorectal cancer, physical activity, intake of NSAIDs, smoking, pack-years of smoking, education, and age and sex
(516)7.8 ± 1.7 controlsMelQx
Ferruci et al., 2012PLCO (US)Cohort17,07255–741993–20013–5 yearsDiMelQxAny distal adenoma, descending/sigmoid colon adenoma, rectal adenomaAge at baseline, study center, gender, ethnicity, education, family history of colorectal cancer, NSAID use, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol intake, dietary calcium, supplemental calcium, dietary fiber, and total energy intake
Mutagenic activity
Sinha et al., 2001USCase–control146 cases58 (46–70) median cases1994–1996DiMelQx (without results)ColorectalAge, gender, total caloric intake, fiber intake, reason for screening, physical activity level, pack-years of cigarette smoking, use of NSAIDs, and white meat
228 controls57 (46–71) median controlsMelQxadenoma
Mutagenic activity
Sinha et al., 2005USCase–control146 cases58 median cases1994–1996BPCRAAge, gender, total caloric intake, fiber intake, reason for screening, physical activity level, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and use of NSAIDs
228 controls59 median controls
Sinha et al., 2005PLCO (US)Case–control3,696 cases55–741993–2001Mutagenicity, DiMelQxAll adenomas, stage (nonadvanced, advanced); site (colon, rectum); number of adenomas (single, multiple)Age, gender, screening center, energy intake, ethnicity, educational attainment, tobacco use, alcohol use, use of aspirin and ibuprofen separately, vigorous physical activity, total folate intake, and calcium intake and dietary fiber intake
34,817 controlsMelQx
Gunter et al., 2005US (California)Case–control261 cases50–741991–1993 sigmoidoscopyBPTotal adenomasAge, gender, energy, center, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking status, and BMI
304 controls1995–1998DiMelQxLarge (>1 cm) adenomas
 diet cooking moduleMelQx
Ferruci et al., 2009CONCeRN study (US)Case–control158 cases60.2 ± 9.02000 – 2002DIMelQxAdenomaAge, education, race, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, study center, current HRT use, family history of colorectal polyps or cancer, regular NSAID use, alcohol intake, fiber, dietary calcium, calcium from supplements, and total caloric intake
649 controls(mean cases)MelQx
(women only)57.2 ± 7.6PhIP
(mean controls)BP
Mutagenic activity
Wang et al., 2010PLCO (US) and Kaiser Permanente Hawaii's Gastroenterology Screening Clinic and Gastroenterology Department HawaiiCase–control914 cases61 (55–68) mean cases1996–2000PhIPCRAAge, sex, ethnicity, daily energy intake, lifetime hours of recreational physical activity and additionally for recruitment site and examination procedure, BMI, pack-years of smoking, alcohol intake, folate intake in the adenoma study and BMI 5 years before diagnosis, ever use of aspirin, years of schooling, and daily intake of calcium
1,185 controls62 (56–68)1995–2007MelQx
 mean controls2002–2007DiMelQx
Total HAAs
Fu et al., 2011TCPS (US)Case–control1,881 cases40–752003–2010DiMelQxAdenomas, HPPAge, sex, race, study sites, educational attainment, indications for colonoscopy, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, regular NSAID use, total energy intake, and recruitment before or after colonoscopy
3,764 controlsMelQx
Ho et al., 2014CanadaCase–control336 participants40–652009–2012DiMelQxCRASex, smoking status, fruit and vegetable intake, dietary fiber intake, and biomarker levels of albumin and folate
Meat mutagenicity
Budhathoki et al., 2015JapanCase–control738 cases (men n = 498) (women n = 240)50–79 (men)2004–2005PhIPCRAAge, screening period, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, family history of colorectal cancer, and NSAID use. Further adjusted in females: age at menarche, menopausal status, and current use of hormones
697 controls (men n = 453) (women n = 244)40–79 (women)MelQx
Total HCA
  • Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CONCeRN, Colorectal Neoplasia screening with Colonoscopy in asymptomatic women at Regional Navy/army medical centers; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-up Study; HPP, hyperplastic polyp; HRT, hormone replacement therapy; PLCO, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Screening Trial; TCPS, Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study.