Table 1.

ALPHA baseline values and main effects for estrogens, estrogen metabolites, and metabolic pathways

Serum concentrations at baseline (pmol/L)
Exercisers (n = 153)Controls (n = 153)Main effects between groups
Estrogens, estrogen metabolites, and metabolic pathwaysaMean (SE)Mean (SE)% Differenceb (SE)
Parent estrogens379.6 (13.8)389.3 (29.1)−5.3 (3.8)
 Estrone339.5 (12.3)341.2 (12.8)−4.5 (3.9)
 Estradiol40.1 (2.5)48.1 (4.9)10.0 (4.7)c
2-pathway183.5 (4.7)191.4 (6.4)−2.1 (2.9)
 2-Hydroxyestrone82.2 (2.6)87.7 (3.6)−1.9 (3.8)
 2-Hydroxyestradiol27.5 (1.0)28.6 (1.2)−5.7 (4.7)
 2-Methoxyestrone42.6 (1.4)43.2 (1.6)−4.1 (3.3)
 2-Methoxyestradiol22.9 (0.7)23.6 (0.7)0.6 (3.4)
 2-Hydroxyestrone-3 methyl ether8.2 (0.2)8.3 (0.3)1.2 (3.6)
4-pathway21.1 (0.5)21.6 (0.6)2.7 (2.5)
 4-Hydroxyestrone9.9 (0.3)10.2 (0.4)4.1 (3.7)
 4-Methoxyestrone6.1 (0.2)6.0 (0.2)−1.2 (3.0)
 4-Methoxyestradiol5.2 (0.2)5.4 (0.2)4.8 (3.4)
16-pathway254.9 (8.1)252.6 (8.7)1.3 (3.6)
 16α-hydroxyestrone37.5 (1.2)39.2 (1.5)−2.5 (3.8)
 17-Epiestriol12.5 (0.4)12.8 (0.5)3.2 (4.0)
 Estriol144.9 (5.2)141.5 (5.4)1.8 (4.2)
 16-Ketoestradiol42.5 (1.5)42.0 (1.5)3.5 (3.8)
 16-Epiestriol17.5 (0.5)17.2 (0.5)2.4 (3.6)
2-pathway/parent estrogens ratio0.53 (0.01)0.54 (0.01)3.0 (3.1)
  • aIncludes glucuronidated, sulfated, and unconjugated forms for each estrogen, estrogen metabolite, and metabolic pathway.

  • b% Difference derived from linear mixed models adjusted for baseline estrogen/estrogen metabolite concentrations, without adjustment for weight change: 153 exercisers and 154 controls. Significant differences are in bold.

  • cP = 0.04.