Table 2.

Cohorts taking part in the NCI Cohort Consortium

Cohort nameDesignLocationPopulation typeSizeAge range at recruitmentSexYears of recruitmentFollow-up type
Adventist Health Study-2CohortUSA and CanadaMembers of the Adventist church96,00030–100+M + F2002–2007Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Agricultural Health StudyCohortIA and NC, USALicensed pesticide applicators and their spouses 89,656 20–77M + F1993–1997 Questionnaires (mail or telephone) and record linkage
Alberta's Tomorrow ProjectaCohortAlberta, CanadaGeneral population55,00035–69M + F2001–2015Questionnaire and record linkage
Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention StudyFollow-up of an RCTSouthwest FinlandMale smokers29,13350–69M1985–1988Record linkage
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study — CancerCohortFour locations, USAGeneral population15,79245–64M + F1987–1989Repeat reexaminations plus by telephone
Atlantic PATHaCohortNew Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Canada General population35,47118–78M + F2009–2015Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Black Women's Health StudyCohortUSABlack women59,00021–69F1995Repeated mailed questionnaires
Breakthrough Generations StudyCohortUKGeneral population113,00016–102F2003–2015Repeated mailed and online questionnaires plus record linkage
Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project Follow-up StudyFollow-up of breast screening program participants27 cities, USASelected participants from breast cancer screening program64,18240–79F1980Repeated telephone and mailed questionnaires
Breast Cancer Family Registry CohortCohortSan Francisco area, New York City, Philadelphia, and Salt Lake City, USA; Ontario, Canada; Melbourne and Sydney, AustraliaMultigenerational families37,776 18+M + F1996–2012Repeated questionnaires (mail and telephone) and record linkage
Breast Cancer Surveillance ConsortiumFollow-up of breast imaging participantsSeveral locations, USABreast cancer imaging participants>2.9 million18+F1994–2014Record linkage
British Columbia Generations ProjectaCohortBritish ColumbiaGeneral population30,00035–69M + F2009–2015Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
California Teachers StudyCohortCA, USACalifornia public school teachers, administrators, and other school professionals133,47922–104F1995–1996Repeated mailed questionnaires
Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and HealthCohortCanadaAlumni from Universities of Alberta, Toronto, and Western Ontario73,90921+M + F1992–1998Record linkage
Canadian Partnership for Tomorrow ProjectCohortCanadaAggregation of five regional cohorts—BC Generations, Alberta's Tomorrow, Ontario Health Study, Quebec's CARTaGENE, and Atlantic PATH – already separately members of the Consortium300,00030–74M + F2001–2017Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS II)CohortAll U.S. states, plus Puerto RicoGeneral population1,185,10630–111M + F1982–1983Record linkage for cause of death
CPS II Nutrition CohortbCohort21 U.S. statesGeneral population (subset of CPS II)184,19440–92M + F1992–1993Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Carotene and Retinol Efficacy TrialFollow-up of an RCTSeveral locations, USAClinical trial of beta carotene and retinyl palmitate; persons at high risk of lung cancer18,31445–74M + F1985–1994Mailed questionnaires and telephone calls to 2005. Record linkage thereafter
CARTaGENE Cohort and BiobankaCohortQuebec, CanadaGeneral population43,06840–69M + F2009–2015Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Campaign against Cancer and Stroke Study (CLUE I)CohortWashington County, MD, USAGeneral population25,80212–97M + F1974Record linkage and for about a third, repeated mailed questionnaires
Campaign against Cancer and Heart Disease Study (CLUE II)CohortWashington County, MD, USAGeneral population32,8982–102M + F1989Repeated mailed questionnaires and record linkage
Cohort of Swedish MenCohortCentral SwedenGeneral population48,85045–79 M1997Questionnaires and record linkage
Colon Cancer Family Registry CohortFollow-up of case-family cohortAll or part of U.S. states: AZ, CA, CO, HI, MN, NC, NH, OH, WA, plus Australia, New Zealand, and Ontario, CanadaColorectal cancer cases (ascertainment through cancer registries and high-risk clinics) and their family members38,000 18–75M + F1997–2012Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and NutritionCollaboration of cohorts22 centers in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK.Mainly general population but other sources at 4 of the 22 centers519,97825–70M + F1992–1998Record linkage in most centers plus repeat questionnaires
General Cohort of Adults in NorwayCollaboration of 10 cohorts (including Tromsø, HUNT, HUSK, and HUBRO studies)Several locations in NorwayMainly general population185,00020–103M + F1994–2008Record linkage, plus repeat visits by some participants
Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health StudyCohortScotlandGeneral population, with at least one first-degree relative recruit per proband23,96018–98M + F2006–2011Record linkage and limited recontact
Golestan Cohort StudyCohortGolestan, IranGeneral population50,04540–75M + F2004–2008Yearly by phone or in person
Health Professionals Follow-up StudyCohortUSAHealth professionals, mainly dentists and veterinarians51,52940–75M1986Repeated questionnaires
Iowa Women's Health StudyCohortIA, USAGeneral population41,83655–69F1986Mailed questionnaires, and record linkage
Janus Serum BankCohortNorwayMainly general population; ∼10% blood donors318,62818–68M + F1972–2004Record linkage
Mayo Mammography Health StudyCohortRochester, MN, USABreast cancer screening practice19,92335–90F2003–2006Mailed questionnaires and record linkage
Melbourne Collaborative Cohort StudyCohortMelbourne, AustraliaGeneral population, with Greek and Italian ethnicities over-represented41,50040–69M + F1990–1994Record linkage and repeated questionnaires
Mexican American (Mano a Mano) CohortCohortTX, USAGeneral population—Mexican Americans24, 46035–75M + F2001–2014Telephone, self-reports, and record linkage
Mexican Teachers' CohortCohort12 states in MexicoMexican teachers115,315 + 2,160 25–82Largely F (2% M)2006–2013Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Millennium Cohort StudyCohortUSAU.S. military service personnel and spouses201,620 18–68M + F2001–2013Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC)CohortHI and CA, USAGeneral population, stratified by ethnicity215,251 45–75M + F1993–1996Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
NIH-AARP StudyCohortSix states and two metropolitan areas, USAMembers of American Association of Retired Persons566,40150–71M + F1995–1996Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Netherlands Cohort StudyCohortNetherlandsGeneral population120,85255–69M + F1986Record linkage
Northern Sweden Health and Disease StudyCohortVästerbotten and Norrbotten county, northern SwedenGeneral population 140,000 25–70M + F1985 →Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Nurses Health Study ICohort11 U.S. statesU.S. nurses121,70030–55F1976Repeated questionnaires
Nurses Health Study IICohort14 U.S. statesU.S. nurses116,43025–42F1989Repeated questionnaires
Nutrition Intervention Trials — LinxianFollow-up of randomized trialLinxian, ChinaParticipants in a nutrition intervention trial in high-risk area32,88725–81M + F1985–86Record linkage and subsample questionnaire
NYU Womens Health StudyCohortNew York City, USABreast cancer screening clinic14,27434–65F1985–1991Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Ontario Health StudyaCohortOntario, CanadaGeneral population228,61118 and olderM + F2010–17Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Physicians' Health Study IFollow-up of RCTUSAPhysicians22,07140–84M1982–1983Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Physicians' Health Study IIFollow-up of RCTUSAPhysicians14,64150+M1997–2000Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
PONS Polish Cohort StudyCohortKielce and surrounding area, Southeast PolandGeneral population13,17245–64M + F2010–2011Repeated questionnaires, record linkage, and clinical assessments
Prostate Cancer Prevention TrialFollow-up of RCTUSA and CanadaGeneral population18,88255+M1993–1997Clinic visits and questionnaires until March 2009; subsequently record linkage
PLCOFollow-up of randomized screening trial10 sites in USAMen and women with no previous diagnosis of prostate, lung, colorectal, ovarian cancers enrolled at screening centers154,93555–74M + F1993–2001Questionnaire, and record linkage
RERF Life Span StudyCohortHiroshima and Nagasaki, JapanDistally exposed A-bomb survivors and unexposed individuals with questionnaire data53,000cAll agesM + F1950, 1958Record linkage, clinical assessments, and repeated questionnaires
Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention TrialFollow-up of RCTUSA, Puerto Rico, CanadaGeneral population34,88750–100+M2001–2004Clinic visits and questionnaires until September 2012; subsequently record linkage
Shanghai Cohort StudyCohortDefined geographic areas of Shanghai, ChinaGeneral population18,24445–64M1986–1989Annual visits to known surviving cohort members
Shanghai Men's Health StudyCohortDistrict of Shanghai, ChinaGeneral population61,48040–74M2002–2006Record linkage, biennial in-person surveys
Shanghai Women's Health Study CohortDefined geographic areas of Shanghai, ChinaGeneral population74,942 40–70F1997–2000In-person surveys and record linkage
Singapore Chinese Health StudyCohortResidents of public housing estates, SingaporeGeneral population, restricted to the two major dialect groups, Hokkien and Cantonese63,25745–74M + F1993–1998Telephone interviews and record linkage
Sister StudyCohortUSA and Puerto RicoSisters of women with breast cancer50,88435–74F2003–2009Repeated questionnaires and medical records
Southern Community Cohort StudyCohort12 southeastern states of USAGeneral population and enrollees at community health centers85,00040–79M + F2002–2009Repeated questionnaires, telephone follow-up, and record linkage
Swedish Mammography CohortCohortVästmanland and Uppsala counties, central SwedenBreast screening program59,03640–76F1987–1990Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Swedish National March CohortCohort3,600 cities and villages across SwedenAttended national (fund raising) march43,8808–94M + F1997Record linkage
US Radiologic Technologists CohortCohortUSARadiologic technologists (current and former)146,02222–90M + F1982–2014Repeated questionnaires
VITamins And LifestyleCohort13 counties in western WA, USAGeneral population77,73850–76M + F2000–2002Record linkage
Women's Health Initiative (WHI)Follow-up of RCT and observational cohort40 clinical centers in USAPostmenopausal women from the general population161,80850–79F1994–1998Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
WHI Cancer Survivor Cohortb Follow-up of RCT and observational cohortClinical centers in USAGeneral population (subset of WHI)14,00050–100+F2013–2017Record linkage
Women's Health StudyFollow-up of RCTUSAHealth professionals39,87645–100+F1993–1996Repeated questionnaires and record linkage
Women's Lifestyle and HealthdCohortUppsala, Sweden and NorwayGeneral population96,54130–49F1991–1992Questionnaire and record linkage
  • Abbreviations: F, female; M, male; RCT, randomized controlled trial.

  • aNot included separately when counting numbers of cohorts in the text, because it is included within Canadian Partnership for Tomorrow Project in this table.

  • bNot included separately when counting numbers of cohorts in the text, because it is a subset of another cohort in this table.

  • cOverall RERF cohort is 197,000, but 53,000 of these are suitable and potentially available for consortial pooling.

  • dIncludes data from the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health Study and the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.