Table 1.

Characteristics of studies investigating the association between physical activity and global DNA methylation (n = 12)

Intervention studies (n = 4)
StudyCountryStudy designStudy populationSample size (n)Mean age (years)Female (%)Duration of interventionInterventionMethylation measureTissue
Barres (2012; ref. 30)IrelandCrossoverHealthy individuals1425.0N/AAcute (single bout)AerobicLUMAMuscle
Duggan (2014; ref. 32)USARandomized controlled trialPostmenopausal overweight women30057.9100.0Chronic (12 months)AerobicLINE1WBC
Delgada-Cruzata (2015; ref. 31)USACrossoverMinority breast cancer survivors2452.2100.0Chronic (6 months)Aerobic + resistance + dietLINE1, Sat2, LUMAWBC
King-Himmelreich (2016; ref. 34)GermanyNonrandomized controlled trialUntrained individuals with a leg injury3046.166.7Acute (1 month)Aerobic + resistanceLINE1WBC
Observational studies (n = 8)
StudyCountryStudy designStudy populationSample size (n)Mean age (years)Female (%)Duration of exposureExposure self-reportedMethylation measureTissue
McGuinness (2011; ref. 37)ScotlandCross-sectionalHealthy individuals23949.851.0ChronicYesGlobalWBC
Zhang (2011; ref. 41)USACross-sectionalHealthy individuals16153.062.6AcuteNoLINE1WBC
Gomes (2012; ref. 33)BrazilCross-sectionalHealthy older adults12670.852.4AcuteNoGlobalWBC
Morabia (2012; ref. 38)USACase–controlHealthy individuals18022.736.0ChronicYesLINE1WBC
Luttropp (2013; ref. 35)SwedenCross-sectionalHealthy older individuals101670+N/AChronicYesLUMAWBC
White (2013; ref. 40)USA and Puerto RicoCross-sectionalWomen with a family history of breast cancer64754.8100.0ChronicYesLINE1Whole Blood
Perng (2014; ref. 39)USACross-sectionalHealthy individuals98762.452.4ChronicYesLINE1, AluWBC
Marques-Rocha (2016; ref. 36)BrazilCross-sectionalHealthy individuals15623.158.3ChronicYesLINE1WBC