Table 4.

Multivariable-adjusted associations of evolutionary-concordance diet and lifestyle and Mediterranean diet pattern scores with incident colorectal cancer in the IWHS (N = 35,221), 1986–2012

Evolutionary-concordance scores
DietaLifestylebCombinedcMediterranean diet scorea
Score variableHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Continuous1.00 (0.99–1.01)0.96 (0.94–0.97)0.97 (0.95–0.98)1.00 (0.99–1.01)
Quintiles
 11.001.001.001.00
 21.02 (0.88–1.19)0.87 (0.75–1.00)0.92 (0.79–1.07)1.10 (0.95–1.28)
 31.01 (0.87–1.17)0.79 (0.68–0.91)0.83 (0.72–0.97)1.18 (1.02–1.36)
 41.01 (0.86–1.18)0.75 (0.64–0.87)0.85 (0.73–0.98)1.01 (0.86–1.19)
 51.01 (0.85–1.19)0.66 (0.56–0.78)0.70 (0.59–0.81)1.01 (0.86–1.18)
  Ptrend0.85<0.01<0.010.98
  • aFor score construction, see text and Table 1. HRs from Cox proportional hazards models; covariates included age (years; continuous), family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative (yes/no), smoking status (current, past, never smoker), education (< high school, high school, > high school), BMI (weight [kg]/height [m]2; continuous), physical activity (low, medium, high), total energy intake (kcal/day; continuous), arthritis (yes/no), and HRT use (current, past, never).

  • bIncludes smoking, physical activity, and BMI; for score construction, see text. HRs from Cox proportional hazards models; covariates included age (years; continuous), family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative (yes/no), education (less than high school, high school, more than high school), total energy intake (kcal/day; continuous), arthritis (yes/no), use of HRT (current, past, never use), and evolutionary-concordant diet score (quintiles).

  • cCombined score = evolutionary-concordant diet score + evolutionary-concordant lifestyle score. HRs from Cox proportional hazards models; covariates included age (years; continuous), family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative (yes/no), education (less than high school, high school, more than high school), total energy intake (kcal/day; continuous), arthritis (yes/no), and use of HRT (current, past, never use).