Table 1.

Characteristics of children and AYA with ALL

TotalChild: 1–14 yAYA: 15–39 y
(n = 184)(n = 91)(n = 93)P
Sociodemographics
 Age
  Median (interquartile range)15 y (4.75–34 y)4 y (3–10 y)23 y (19–30 y)
 Gender
  Male119 (64.7%)56 (61.5%)63 (67.7%)0.4
  Female65 (35.3%)35 (38.5%)30 (32.3%)
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white63 (34.2%)30 (33.0%)33 (35.5%)0.1
  African-American1 (0.5%)0 (0%)1 (1.1%)
  Hispanic99 (53.8%)46 (50.6%)53 (57.0%)
  Asian-Pacific Islander21 (11.4%)15 (16.5%)6 (6.5%)
 Insurance
  Private85 (46.2%)48 (52.8%)37 (39.8%)0.2
  Public66 (35.9%)30 (33.0%)36(38.7%)
  No insurance/unknown33 (17.9%)13 (14.3%)20 (21.5%)
 SES
  Low32 (17.4%)10 (11.0%)22 (23.7%)0.2
  Mid-Low36 (19.6%)18 (19.8%)18 (19.4%)
  Mid39 (21.2%)23 (25.3%)16 (17.2%)
  Mid-High39 (21.2%)20 (22.0%)19 (20.4%)
  High38 (20.7%)20 (22.0%)18 (19.4%)
 Insurance + SES combined
  Private insurance + high SES47 (25.5%)26 (28.6%)21 (22.6%)0.3
  Public/none + mid/low SES69 (37.5%)29 (31.9%)40 (43.0%)
  Mixed profilea68 (37.0%)34 (31.9%)32 (34.4%)
Treatment variables
 Therapy
  Pediatric102 (55.4%)84 (92.3%)18 (19.4%)<0.0001
  Adult65 (35.3%)0 (0%)65 (69.9%)
  Mixed7 (3.8%)0 (0%)7 (7.5%)
  International10 (5.4%)7 (7.7%)3 (3.2%)
 Oncology service
  Pediatric101 (54.9%)84 (92.3%)17 (18.3%)<0.0001
  Adult71 (38.6%)0 (0%)71 (76.3%)
  Mixed2 (1.1%)0 (0%)2 (2.2%)
  International10 (5.4%)7 (7.7%)3 (3.2%)
 Oncology service + therapy
  Pediatric oncology/pediatric therapy101 (54.9%)84 (92.3%)17 (18.3%)<0.0001
  Adult oncology/adult therapy65 (35.3%)0 (0%)65 (69.9%)
  Mixed oncology/mixed therapy18 (9.8%)7 (7.7%)11 (11.8%)
 Duration of maintenance mean (SD) in months
  All patients19 (11.2)23.5 (8.5)14.9 (12)<0.01
  Patients who completed therapy25.4 (6.8)25.3 (6.5)25.4 (7.3)0.9
 Duration of consolidation mean (SD) in months
  All patients7.2 (3.6)8.0 (3.6)6.5 (3.5)<0.01
  Patients who completed therapy8.0 (3.5)8.2 (3.6)7.7 (3.4)0.5
 Clinical trial enrollment
  Enrolled on clinical trial60 (32.6%)39 (42.9%)21 (22.6%)0.003
  Not enrolled on clinical trial124 (67.4%)52 (57.1%)72 (77.4%)
Clinical prognosticators
 White blood cell count at diagnosis
  WBC <50K129 (70.1%)67 (73.6%)62 (66.7%)0.3
  WBC >50K55 (29.9%)24 (26.4%)31 (33.3%)
Response to therapy at the end of inductionb
  M1 marrow at end of Induction139 (75.5%)78 (85.7%)61 (65.6%)<0.01
  M2-M3 marrow at end of Induction18 (9.8%)4 (4.4%)14 (15.1%)
  Other27 (14.7%)9 (9.9%)18 (19.4%)
 Immunophenotype
  Precursor B-cell149 (81%)79 (86.8%)70 (75.3%)0.04
  T-cell35 (19%)12 (13.2%)23 (24.7%)
 High-risk cytogenetic profilec
  High-risk cytogenetic profile18 (9.8%)5 (5.5%)13 (14.0%)0.05
  No presence of high-risk features166 (90.2%)86 (94.5%)80 (86%)
 CNS disease
  Positive6 (3.3%)2 (2.2%)4 (4.3%)0.3
  Negative168 (91.3%)86 (94.5%)82 (88.2%)
  Unknown10 (5.4%)3 (3.3%)7 (7.5%)
  • aMixed profile in this situation reflects a combination of either public or no insurance + high SES, or private insurance + low SES.

  • bResponse to therapy at the end of induction was grouped as follows: (i) patients with an M1 marrow (<5% blasts) at the end of induction; (ii) patients with an M2-M3 marrow (≥5% blasts) at the end of induction, but with M1 marrow on follow-up evaluation after additional therapy; (iii) patients who did not have a documented end of induction marrow, but the first marrow documented after initiation of treatment (>36 days) was M1 (“other”).

  • cHigh-risk cytogenetic profile indicates presence of either: Philadelphia chromosome, MLL rearrangement and/or hypodiploidy.