Table 1.

Selected characteristics [medians (interquartile range) or percent] for renal cell carcinoma case and control subjects in the CPS-II cohort

ControlsCases
Characteristics(n = 87)(n = 87)Pa
Age, y70.4 (65.7–75.4)70.8 (66.5–75.4)Matched
Male (%)64.464.4Matched
Race
 White97.797.7Matched
BMIb (kg/m2)25.1 (22.9–28.1)26.5 (24.0–28.7)0.10
Smoking statusb
 Never47.535.80.31
 Former50.061.7
 Current2.52.5
History of diabetesb (%)10.317.20.19
History of kidney failurec (%)0.01.21.00
Physical activityb (MET-h/wk)14.0 (7.0–24.5)14.0 (7.0–24.9)0.89
College graduatec (%)47.752.90.17
Intake/dayb
 Total energy (kcal)1,788 (1,488–2,147)1,778 (1,437–2,082)0.88
 Dietary vitamin D (IU)188 (148–283)179 (128–292)0.87
 Dietary calcium (mg)730 (583–1,112)744 (563–1,071)0.94
 Alcohol (drinks)0.10 (0–0.72)0.10 (0–0.75)0.98
Use of dietary supplementsb (%)
 Vitamin D17.76.90.09
 Calcium38.236.10.80
Family history of kidney cancerc2.30.00.50
Family history of any other cancerb65.558.60.35
  • aThe χ2 test or Fisher exact test (when cells have expected counts <5) for categorical variables and Wilcoxon test for continuous variables.

  • bAssessed at the time closest to blood collection.

  • cAssessed at baseline in 1982.