Table 2.

Selected characteristics of participants according to quintiles of the evolutionary-concordance and Mediterranean diet pattern scores at baseline in the IWHS (N = 35,221), 1986–2012

Evolutionary-concordance diet score quintilesMediterranean diet score quintiles
Characteristicsa1 (n = 7,846)3 (n = 7,695)5 (n = 6,260)Pb1 (n = 8,490)3 (n = 6,999)5 (n = 7,036)Pb
Age, years61.3 (4.2)61.6 (4.2)61.6 (4.2)<0.0161.2 (4.2)61.7 (4.2)61.5 (4.2)<0.01
White race, %99.499.399<0.0199.199.299.30.13
BMI, kg/m226.6 (5.0)27.0 (5.0)27.0 (5.0)<0.0127.1 (5.3)27.0 (5.0)26.7 (4.8)<0.01
First-degree relative with colorectal cancer, %3.13.23.40.623.12.830.27
Current or past HRT use, %35.23943.8<0.0135.638.542.4<0.01
Current or past smoker, %36.833.333.7<0.0135.623.735.9<0.01
>High school education, %31.240.749.6<0.0130.740.350.4<0.01
High physical activityc, %15.924.138.9<0.0116.824.435.8<0.01
Total energy intake, kcal/day2,021 (605)1,770 (619)1,590 (481)<0.011,778 (656)1,794 (609)1,784 (509)<0.01
Total calcium intaked, mg/day983 (493)1,096 (562)1,259 (580)<0.011,026 (574)1,086 (542)1,154 (527)<0.01
Total fat intake, g/day82.7 (28.7)67.0 (26.6)54.2 (20.0)<0.0172.7 (30.6)68.1 (27.4)64.3 (23.3)<0.01
Saturated fat intake, g/day30.0 (11.2)23.4 (10.0)18.1 (7.0)<0.0127.1 (12.3)23.7 (10.0)21.0 (7.9)<0.01
Dietary fiber intake, g/day17.9 (6.8)19.7 (8.2)22.2 (8.3)<0.0112.6 (7.1)19.9 (7.7)23.7 (7.8)<0.01
Alcohol intake, g/day4.8 (10.1)3.6 (8.4)2.9 (7.7)<0.013.2 (9.8)3.5 (8.5)4.9 (7.9)<0.01
Protein intake, g/day84.9 (29.2)80.0 (31.3)78.6 (27.3)<0.0178.4 (31.8)80.4 (30.8)85.3 (26.7)<0.01
Carbohydrates intake, g/day235 (81)216 (83)203 (70)<0.01205 (84)219 (80)232 (74)<0.01
  • aContinuous variables presented as mean ± SD, and categorical variables as percentage.

  • bP values calculated using the χ2 test for categorical variables and one-way ANOVA for continuous variables.

  • cPhysical activity level derived from two questions regarding the frequency of moderate and vigorous physical activity (15), and categorized as high (vigorous activity twice a week or moderate activity >4 times/week), medium (vigorous activity once a week plus moderate activity once a week, or moderate activity 2–4 times/week), and low.

  • dTotal = diet + supplements.