Table 3.

Selected characteristics of participants according to quintiles of the evolutionary-concordance lifestyle score at baseline in the IWHS (N = 35,221), 1986–2012

Evolutionary-concordance lifestyle score quintiles
Characteristicsa1 (n = 7,040)3 (n = 7,290)5 (n = 5,137)Pb
Age, years61.3 (4.2)61.4 (4.2)61.8 (4.3)<0.01
White race, %98.899.399.5<0.01
BMI, kg/m232.5 (5.0)25.7 (5.1)22.8 (1.6)<0.01
First-degree relative with colorectal cancer, %3.13.03.20.72
Current or past HRT use, %36.239.941.2<0.01
Current or past smoker, %56.335.50<0.01
>High school education, %33.340.747.9<0.01
High physical activityc, %015.950.3<0.01
Total energy intake, kcal/day1,787 (624)1,788 (600)1,827 (573)<0.01
Total calcium intaked, mg/day1,004 (537)1,101 (555)1,202 (552)<0.01
Total fat intake, g/day70.3 (28.9)68.0 (27.5)67.0 (25.8)<0.01
Saturated fat intake, g/day24.7 (10.8)23.8 (10.5)23.3 (9.8)<0.01
Dietary fiber intake, g/day18.4 (7.6)19.6 (7.7)21.7 (8.1)<0.01
Alcohol intake, g/day3.5 (9.2)3.9 (8.7)2.8 (6.2)<0.01
Protein intake, g/day80.9 (31.1)79.9 (30.1)81.8 (28.3)<0.01
Carbohydrates intake, g/day211 (81)218 (78)231 (77)<0.01
  • aContinuous variables presented as mean ± SD, and categorical variables as percentage.

  • bP values calculated using the χ2 test for categorical variables and one-way ANOVA for continuous variables.

  • cPhysical activity level derived from two questions regarding the frequency of moderate and vigorous physical activity (15), and categorized as high (vigorous activity twice a week or moderate activity >4 times/week), medium (vigorous activity once a week plus moderate activity once a week, or moderate activity 2–4 times/week), and low.

  • dTotal = diet + supplements.