Table 3.

Association of serum 25(OH)D with incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease mortality (presented as ORs and 95% CIs from unconditional logistic regression models)

Incident liver cancerChronic liver disease mortality
Clinical cutpoints of serum 25(OH)D (nmol/L)
Overall<2525–<37.537.5–<50≥50Ptrend<2525–<37.537.5–<50≥50Ptrend
No. of cases / controls71/10662/11731/8538/11979/10661/11736/8549/119
Age and date-adjusted1.98 (1.22–3.20)1.67 (1.03–2.71)1.12 (0.64–1.98)1.00 (ref)0.0031.93 (1.23–3.03)1.28 (0.81–2.02)1.03 (0.64–2.04)1.00 (ref)0.006
Multivariable-adjusteda1.91 (1.16–3.15)1.57 (0.95–2.59)1.24 (0.69–2.20)1.00 (ref)0.0081.67 (1.02–2.75)1.24 (0.75–2.06)1.07 (0.61–1.88)1.00 (ref)0.05
Summer months
 No. of cases / controls14/1922/329/4120/6921/1923/3217/4130/69
 Multivariable-adjusteda2.51 (1.01–6.22)1.93 (0.87–4.29)0.80 (0.31–2.04)1.00 (ref)0.033.04 (1.24–7.45)1.75 (0.77–3.94)1.17 (0.51–2.67)1.00 (ref)0.02
Winter months
 No. of cases / controls57/8740/8522/4418/5058/8738/8519/4419/50
 Multivariable-adjusteda1.55 (0.80–3.03)1.24 (0.62–2.49)1.36 (0.62–2.97)1.00 (ref)0.231.27 (0.63–2.55)0.97 (0.48–1.97)0.99 (0.43–2.25)1.00 (ref)0.53
Season-specific quartiles of serum 25(OH)D
OverallQ1Q2Q3Q4PtrendQ1Q2Q3Q4Ptrend
 No. of cases / controls72/10656/10841/10533/10872/10663/10852/10538/108
 Age and date-adjusted2.07 (1.26–3.41)1.76 (1.05–2.94)1.23 (0.72–2.10)1.00 (ref)0.0012.01 (1.24–3.24)1.60 (0.98–2.60)1.42 (0.86–2.34)1.00 (ref)0.004
 Multivariable-adjusteda1.87 (1.12–3.12)1.52 (0.90–2.57)1.12 (0.64–1.96)1.00 (ref)0.0071.69 (1.00–2.88)1.27 (0.75–2.17)1.25 (0.73–2.16)1.00 (ref)0.06
Summer months
 No. of cases / controls25/4020/4113/397/4135/4021/4120/3915/41
 Multivariable-adjusteda2.86 (1.06–7.77)2.35 (0.86–6.46)1.66 (0.57–4.83)1.00 (ref)0.032.65 (1.12–6.28)1.17 (0.47–2.91)1.45 (0.58–3.62)1.00 (ref)0.04
Winter months
 No. of cases / controls47/6636/6728/6626/6737/6642/6732/6623/67
 Multivariable-adjusteda1.56 (0.84–2.90)1.21 (0.64–2.31)1.00 (0.51–1.94)1.00 (ref)0.121.30 (0.64–2.64)1.37 (0.69–2.72)1.19 (0.59–2.39)1.00 (ref)0.43
Season-standardized quartiles of serum 25(OH)D (among those whose levels were assayed in January 2008 or February 2013)
OverallQ1Q2Q3Q4PtrendQ1Q2Q3Q4Ptrend
 No. of cases / controls66/10561/10339/10234/10471/10558/10345/10240/104
 Age and date-adjusted1.89 (1.14–3.12)1.90 (1.14–3.15)1.22 (0.71–2.10)1.00 (ref)0.0041.76 (1.09–2.84)1.41(0.86–2.30)1.09 (0.65–1.81)1.00 (ref)0.01
 Multivariable-adjusteda1.72 (1.02–2.88)1.73 (1.03–2.93)1.15 (0.65–2.01)1.00 (ref)0.021.40 (0.82–2.38)1.19 (0.70–2.05)1.05 (0.60–1.83)1.00 (ref)0.18
Summer months
 No. of cases / controls18/2823/4412/4711/3630/2821/4420/4715/36
 Multivariable-adjusteda1.90 (0.73–4.93)1.56 (0.63–3.85)0.88 (0.33–3.37)1.00 (ref)0.092.60 (1.03–6.58)1.11 (0.43–2.84)1.27 (0.51–3.18)1.00 (ref)0.06
Winter months
 No. of cases / controls48/7738/5927/5523/6841/7737/5925/5525/68
 Multivariable-adjusteda1.61 (0.86–3.01)1.80 (0.93–3.47)1.25 (0.62–2.52)1.00 (ref)0.101.10 (0.56–2.17)1.42 (0.71–2.85)1.03 (0.50–2.12)1.00 (ref)0.64
  • aAdjusted for age, date of blood draw, BMI, history of diabetes, number of years smoked, and daily intake of alcohol and coffee.