Table 2.

Selected baseline characteristics of cases and controls, ATBC Study [presented as medians (IQRs) or percentages]

Incident liver cancerMortality from chronic liver disease
Cases (n = 202)Controls (n = 202)P-valueaCases (n = 225)Controls (n = 225)P valuea
Age, years58 (55–61)57 (54–61)Matched55 (52–57)55 (51–57)Matched
% Blood collected in winter (November-April)67.863.90.4059.660.90.77
BMI, kg/m²27.8 (24.5–30.0)26.1 (24.1–28.9)0.00926.5 (23.9–29.3)25.8 (23.9–29.0)0.33
% Elementary school education or less73.377.70.3072.077.30.19
% Currently married82.285.20.4269.876.00.14
% History of diabetes11.44.50.014.03.60.80
Years smoking38 (34–43)36 (30–41)0.0335 (30–40)35 (30–39)0.88
# cigarettes/day20 (15–25)20 (13–20)0.0323 (15–25)20 (15–25)0.02
% Urban residence60.956.40.3676.064.90.01
% Leisure physical activity ≥1/week47.554.20.1848.050.90.92
Daily dietary intake
 Energy intake, kcal/day2451 (2071–3068)2683 (2223–3111)0.042546 (2070–3100)2795 (2262–3200)0.02
 Calcium, mg/day1221 (883–1606)1308 (1081–1649)0.061192 (853–1602)1385 (1081–1693)0.001
 Vitamin D, μg/day4.7 (3.4–6.5)4.7 (3.3–6.8)0.754.8 (3.3–7.0)4.6 (3.2–7.0)0.86
 Alcohol, g/day13.9 (4.2–29.4)9.9 (3.4–23.6)0.00130.5 (15.3–54.0)12.8 (2.6–31.1)<0.0001
 Coffee, g/day450 (300–660)550 (406–880)0.06330 (150–550)550 (350–770)<0.0001
Supplement use
 % Calcium (yes)14.49.90.1717.38.90.008
 % Vitamin D (yes)9.47.90.606.25.80.84
Serum biomarkers
 25(OH)D, nmol/L30.4 (21.0–42.6)35.2 (23.1–50.0)0.0431.4 (22.0–45.4)37.4 (26.4–52.6)0.002
 % HBsAg(+)b1.20.61.000.50.51.00
 % Anti-HBc(+)b15.07.70.046.35.80.84
 % Anti-HCV(+)b4.80.60.042.40.00.06
  • aWilcoxon tests for continuous variables; Chi-square tests, or Fisher's exact test where appropriate, for categorical variables.

  • bAmong 167 men diagnosed with liver cancer, 208 men who died from chronic liver disease, and 347 controls who had information on HBsAG, anti-HBc, and anti-HCV.