Table 1.

Age-adjusted characteristics of the study population at baseline (1980 for the NHS and 1986 for the HPFS) according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary acrylamide intake

Baseline dietary acrylamide intake quartile (μg/day)
Men (HPFS)Women (NHS)
Quartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4Quartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4
Range:≤14.6414.65–20.1620.17–27.46≥27.47≤10.1910.20–15.0515.06–20.80≥20.81
CharacteristicMedian:11.0617.4223.2335.117.1212.6517.6325.80
Number12,48412,02711,77411,51222,59322,14722,04121,986
Mean age, years (SD)a57.1 (9.7)55.2 (9.7)53.8 (9.5)51.5 (9.2)48.3 (7.1)47.2 (7.2)46.4 (7.1)45.1 (6.9)
Mean BMI, kg/m2 (SD)25.4 (3.5)25.5 (3.3)25.5 (3.2)25.7 (3.4)24.6 (4.7)24.4 (4.6)24.3 (4.4)24.3 (4.4)
Diagnosis of hypertension24.4%21.8%20.8%20.8%19.7%17.0%14.8%13.4%
Diabetes3.1%3.1%3.3%3.1%3.1%2.3%2.1%1.7%
Smoking status
Never51.9%48.7%44.6%41.7%49.1%47.2%42.6%35.6%
Past, quit >10 years before baseline29.0%30.2%31.7%30.5%17.0%17.1%16.3%13.8%
Past, quit ≤10 years before baseline11.2%12.0%13.7%14.7%11.7%10.9%11.5%11.1%
Current7.9%9.1%10.1%13.2%22.2%24.8%29.6%39.5%
Mean pack-years of smoking (SD)b23.9 (19.0)24.9 (19.0)25.5 (19.2)27.9 (20.1)19.0 (16.5)19.2 (16.4)20.5 (16.6)23.0 (17.0)
Nulliparous6.3%5.9%5.5%5.7%
Mean parity, number of children (SD)c3.1 (1.5)3.2 (1.5)3.2 (1.5)3.2 (1.5)
Mean (SD) nutrient & food intakes
Total calories, kcal/day1,997 (641)2,061 (615)1,931 (569)1,943 (640)1,569 (509)1,615 (504)1,576 (473)1,499 (513)
Alcohol, g/day11.8 (17.2)12.1 (16.0)11.1 (14.2)10.0 (13.6)6.5 (11.4)6.6 (11.0)6.4 (10.1)5.7 (9.3)
Breads, servings/dayd1.6 (1.3)2.0 (1.5)2.1 (1.6)2.1 (1.6)1.3 (1.0)1.5 (1.1)1.7 (1.2)1.7 (1.3)
Baked goods, servings/weeke4.9 (6.6)6.4 (7.8)6.3 (7.5)6.4 (7.5)2.5 (3.2)3.8 (4.8)4.6 (6.1)5.5 (7.4)
Cereal, servings/week2.1 (2.5)2.7 (2.8)3.1 (3.1)3.4 (4.6)1.7 (2.4)2.1 (2.6)2.1 (2.8)2.1 (3.2)
Potatoes, servings/weekf2.7 (2.4)3.4 (2.4)3.8 (2.5)5.5 (3.6)2.3 (2.2)3.0 (2.4)3.4 (2.5)4.8 (3.8)
Coffee, cups/dayg1.0 (1.2)1.7 (1.5)2.3 (1.8)2.8 (2.1)0.8 (1.0)1.8 (1.6)2.7 (1.8)3.6 (1.9)
  • NOTE: Percentages may not add up as expected due to rounding.

  • Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.

  • aNot adjusted for age.

  • bAmong 24,396 male ever smokers and 49,822 female ever smokers.

  • cAmong 82,158 parous women.

  • dBreads include white bread, rye bread, other dark bread, English muffins/bagels/rolls, muffins/biscuits, pancakes/waffles, crackers, pizza, tortillas, pretzels, breakfast bars, energy bars, and high-protein bars.

  • eBaked goods include cookies, cake, pie, brownies, doughnuts, and sweet rolls/coffee cake/other pastries.

  • fPotatoes include baked/boiled/mashed potatoes, French fries, and potato chips.

  • gCoffee includes regular, decaffeinated, and dairy coffee drinks.